The Institute for Prospective Technological Studies (IPTS) published this study in 2008.
'Learning plays a key role in ageing societies as it can help to address many of the related challenges and opportunities, suchas increasing social and health expenditures, older people's participation and contribution to the economy, re-skilling and up-skilling in the knowledge-based information society and inter-generational sharing of experience and knowledge. Whendealing with learning in ageing societies, it is important to consider learning in the broad sense and not only look at formal learning institutions. Learning can take place in formal education (i.e. structured learning leading to certification) and non-formal settings (i.e. structured learning situations, but not necessarily leading to certification). Learning can also take place in informal settings (i.e. in everyday life, often unintentionally) by oneself and in interaction with other people. The non-formal and informal dimensions of learning come to the fore especially in ageing societies, while at the same tome ICT (Information and Communication Technologies) are playing an increasingly important role. ' (Introduction)
Link to the study: http://ftp.jrc.es/EURdoc/JRC45209.pdf