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Estonia

General information
Información General
Informations générales
Informazioni generali
Vispārīgā infromācija
Informații generale
Education and work of social carers
Educación y trabajo de cuidadores/as sociales
Formation et conditions de travail des ADV
Formazione e condizioni di lavoro delle assistenti familiari
Aprūpētāju izglītība un darbs
Educația și munca îngrijitorilor la domiciliu
Cuidados de larga duración y situación de los/as trabajadores/as sociales
L'accompagement de longue durée et les ADV
Assistenti familiari e assistenza domiciliare
Ilglaicīgā aprūpe un sociālo darbinieku situācija
Îngrijirea pe termen lung și îngrijitorii la domiciliu
Long-term care and social workers
Social protection system of elderly people in general
Sistema de protección social para las personas mayores en general
Système de protection sociale pour les personnes agées
Il sistema dell'assistenza socio-sanitaria alla popolazione anziana
Vecu cilvēku sociālās aizsardzības sistēma
Sistemul de protecție socială a persoanelor în vârstă, în general
Computer and Internet skills of the general population
Competencias informáticas y de internet de la población general
Maîtrise de l'informatique et d'Internet de la population dans son ensemble
Competenze informatiche e digitali
Vispārējās iedzīvotāju datoru un interneta prasmes
Competențele legate de utilizarea calculatorului și a internetului ale populației în general
  • General information

    Country

     

    Estonia

    Total population

    2012

    1 339 662

    Proportion of population

     

     

    Aged 65-79 years

    2001

    12.6%

     

    2012

    12.7%

    Aged 80 years and more

    2001

    2.6%

     

    2012

    4.5%

    Old-age dependency ratio

     

     

     

    1990

    17.5

     

    2001

    22.7

     

    2012

    25.5

    Old-age dependency ratio projections

    2020

    30.07

     

    2030

    35.83

     

     

     

    Life expectancy at birth, years

    2011

     

    Males

     

    71.2

    Females

     

    81.3

    Life expectancy at age 65, years

    2011

     

    Males

     

    14.7

    Females

     

    20

    Healthy life years expectancy at birth

    2011

     

    Males

     

    54.2

    Females

     

    57.9

    Duration of working life, years

    2011

     

    Males

     

    36.3

    Females

     

    35.6

    Employment rate of older workers aged 55 to 64, total

     

    57.2%

     

  • Long-term care and the situation of social workers

    Country

    Estonia

    Long-term care

    Basic principles

    Long-term care is provided as in-kind social service and it is organised regionally.

    Long-term care is provided by the Social Welfare Act (Sotsiaalhoolekande seadus) among other risks.
    It is provided as a social assistance based upon need.
    Long-term care services are financed by the local government from local government budget and by the person or his/her family.

    Long-term care

    Field of application

    All residents

    Organisation of Long-term care

    Informal caregivers and professional providers

    Both informal caregivers and professional providers offer support and/or services.

    Informal caregivers Offered mostly in cases of non-institutional services (e.g. family members).

    There are no conditions for the family members as they already have social relationships. In the case of non-family members the ability to take care is assessed.

    Professional providers: Offered in non-institutional services (home-care services provided, e.g. by the local governments) and institutional services.

    There is a regulation for care workers - persons with appropriate training employed in social welfare.

    Long-term care

    Benefits for the carer

    Caregiver's Benefit (hooldajatoetus): provided by the local governments to caregivers who support persons with an assessed degree of disability in everyday activities (paying bills, organising transportation to a doctor or to a bank when needed) and also provide care service at home (personal assistance in eating, clothing, washing; home assistance in cleaning, cooking, buying products). In some local governments this benefit is paid to the disabled person.

    The conditions are regulated by the local governments and may therefore differ. Main condition is that the caregiver or the family member who takes care has been appointed by the local government. The amount varies according to the local governments. Benefit is applicable for the informal caregiver.

    Long-term care

    User charges

    Beneficiary pays for accommodation and catering in social welfare institutions according to the contract with the institutions. Beneficiaries pay for the care component too (in welfare institutions for the people with psychic disorders, the beneficiaries are paying for the accommodation and catering component, the care component is paid by the state).
    If a person or his/her family members do not have means to pay for the service, the local government has to support financing the service.

    In case of technical appliances included in the list established by the Minister of Social Affairs (sotsiaalminister), the state covers 40% - 90% of the price, the rest is paid by the beneficiary (it does not matter if the person is in the institution or not).

    Offering home care services is an obligation of the local governments – they have the right to demand participation from the beneficiary. Most of the local governments assess every case individually, the participation level depends on the size of the person’s or his/her family’s income. Some local governments do not demand the participation.

    Patient participation of 15% of the service cost in case of nursing care services.

     

  • Social protection system of elderly people in general

    Country

    Estonia

    GDP at market prices

    Purchasing Power Standard per inhabitant, 2011

    16 900

    Pension expenditure,  % of GDP, 2010

    6.4%

    Expenditure on care for elderly, % of GDP, 2008

    0.1%

    At-risk-of-poverty rate, age group 65 years or over, 2011

    13.1%

    Old-age pensions

    Basic principles

    Old-age Pension (vanaduspension):

    Universal social insurance scheme financed by contributions providing pensions depending on the duration of activity (until 1998) and on contributions (since 1999).

    National Pension (rahvapension): Tax-financed universal scheme guaranteeing a minimum pension for persons who are not entitled to an Old-age Pension.

    Supplementary Pension (kogumispension) (2nd pillar): Fully funded pension insurance based on private asset management under state supervision with contribution-defined pensions. Subscription to the funded pension is mandatory for persons entering the labour market, i.e. persons born in 1983 or later.

    Old-age pensions

    Legal retirement age in standard case.

    In 2011:

    Men: 63 years

    Women: 61 years and 6 months

    Pensionable age is gradually increasing and shall be equalised for men and women by 2016 at the age of 63.

    From 2017 the gradual increase of the pensionable age will be continued and pensionable age shall be equalised for men and women by 2026 at the age of 65.

    Financing principles for old-age pensions

    Old-age Pension (vanaduspension): social tax (sotsiaalmaks) (contributions by employers, self-employed and the state).

    Pension Supplements (pensionilisad) and National Pension (rahvapension): taxes.

    Funded Supplementary Pension (kogumispension): contributions (employees and the state from social tax paid by employers).

    Benefits for older unemployed

    Continued payment of Unemployment Allowance (töötutoetus) up to the pensionable age.

    Financing systems for long-term benefits

    Case of  old-age benefits

    Current income financing (‘pay as you go’)

     

    Health care

    Basic principles

    Compulsory social insurance scheme for all persons with economic activity (employees and self-employed); large groups of the non-active population are covered on the basis of solidarity (e.g. all children and pensioners) or by contributions paid on their behalf by the state. Provides a benefit in kind system.

    Health care

    Benefits for prosthesis, spectacles, hearing-aids

    Temporary prosthesis after amputation, internal prosthesis and stoma aids are paid for by the Health Insurance Fund (Haigekassa). Further technical appliances are provided in the framework of social assistance and financed from the state budget.

     

  • Computer and Internet skills of the general population

    Country

     

    Estonia

    Total population

    2012

    1 339 662

    Proportion of population

     

     

    Aged 65-79 years

    2001

    12.6%

     

    2012

    12.7%

    Aged 80 years and more

    2001

    2.6%

     

    2012

    4.5%

    Old-age dependency ratio

     

     

     

    1990

    17.5

     

    2001

    22.7

     

    2012

    25.5

    Old-age dependency ratio projections

    2020

    30.07

     

    2030

    35.83

     

     

     

    Life expectancy at birth, years

    2011

     

    Males

     

    71.2

    Females

     

    81.3

    Life expectancy at age 65, years

    2011

     

    Males

     

    14.7

    Females

     

    20

    Healthy life years expectancy at birth

    2011

     

    Males

     

    54.2

    Females

     

    57.9

    Duration of working life, years

    2011

     

    Males

     

    36.3

    Females

     

    35.6

    Employment rate of older workers aged 55 to 64, total

     

    57.2%