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Germany

General information
Información General
Informations générales
Informazioni generali
Vispārīgā infromācija
Informații generale
Education and work of social carers
Educación y trabajo de cuidadores/as sociales
Formation et conditions de travail des ADV
Formazione e condizioni di lavoro delle assistenti familiari
Aprūpētāju izglītība un darbs
Educația și munca îngrijitorilor la domiciliu
Cuidados de larga duración y situación de los/as trabajadores/as sociales
L'accompagement de longue durée et les ADV
Assistenti familiari e assistenza domiciliare
Ilglaicīgā aprūpe un sociālo darbinieku situācija
Îngrijirea pe termen lung și îngrijitorii la domiciliu
Long-term care and social workers
Social protection system of elderly people in general
Sistema de protección social para las personas mayores en general
Système de protection sociale pour les personnes agées
Il sistema dell'assistenza socio-sanitaria alla popolazione anziana
Vecu cilvēku sociālās aizsardzības sistēma
Sistemul de protecție socială a persoanelor în vârstă, în general
Computer and Internet skills of the general population
Competencias informáticas y de internet de la población general
Maîtrise de l'informatique et d'Internet de la population dans son ensemble
Competenze informatiche e digitali
Vispārējās iedzīvotāju datoru un interneta prasmes
Competențele legate de utilizarea calculatorului și a internetului ale populației în general
  • General information

    Country

     

    Germany

    Total population

    2012

    81 843 743

    Proportion of population

     

     

    Aged 65-79 years

    2001

    12.9%

     

    2012

    15.2%

    Aged 80 years and more

    2001

    3.8%

     

    2012

    5.4%

    Old-age dependency ratio

     

     

     

    1990

    22

     

    2001

    24.5

     

    2012

    31.2

    Old-age dependency ratio projections

    2020

    35.78

     

    2030

    47.21

     

     

     

    Life expectancy at birth, years

    2011

     

    Males

     

    78.4

    Females

     

    83.2

    Life expectancy at age 65, years

    2011

     

    Males

     

    18.2

    Females

     

    21.2

    Healthy life years expectancy at birth

    2011

     

    Males

     

    57.9

    Females

     

    58.7

    Duration of working life, years

    2011

     

    Males

     

    39.8

    Females

     

    34.8

    Employment rate of older workers aged 55 to 64, total

     

    59.9%

     

  • Long-term care and the situation of social workers

    Country

    Germany

    Long-term care

    Basic principles

    Statutory long-term care insurance:

    In 1995 the long-term care insurance was codified into the Social Code (Sozialgesetzbuch), comparable to the risks concerning sickness, accident, unemployment and old-age insurance. It is a contribution financed compulsory independent social insurance scheme, in accordance with compulsory affiliation and sickness insurance limits. The long-term care insurance is according to its basic idea and its legal form only a ‘core protection system’.

    Furthermore the possibility for a voluntary additional insurance for long-term care is given to every citizen. The statutory long-term care includes two independent parts next to each other - social (SPV) and private long-term care insurance (PPV), which are both compulsory insurances with identical benefits. No financial compensation between the two compulsory insurance schemes, there is a financial compensation regulated by law only within the respective schemes (SPV, PPV).

    Social assistance: tax financed. Beneficiaries incapable of work in need of care, who cannot help themselves and do not receive assistance from other persons, are entitled to care assistance.

    Long-term care

    Field of application

    Statutory long-term care insurance:

    Nearly the entire population is insured through one of the two compulsory insurance schemes. Basic principle: ‘long-term care insurance follows sickness insurance’. Every person that is insured with the statutory sickness insurance is automatically insured with the social long-term care insurance. Persons who are insured with a private sickness insurance concerning the risk of sickness with entitlement to general hospital services have to conclude a respective insurance to cover long-term care.

    Social assistance: every person who fulfils the requirements. 

    Organisation of Long-term care

    Informal caregivers and professional providers

    Service guarantee for long-term care insurance funds
    The long-term care insurance fund as an insurance company of statutory service guarantee must ensure an appropriate long-term care of the insured persons in the framework of providing the benefits. As these funds do not maintain their own facilities and services they conclude care and remuneration contracts with single care persons and the insurance institutions managing nursing homes and out-patient care services. Every care facility which fulfils the admission requirement is legally entitled to be admitted to carry out care services. That is why facilities of local, non-profit or private ownership cooperate next to each other.
    There are also so called low-threshold care services, where volunteers under professional guidance temporarily provide long-term care for persons in need at their homes or in groups.
    Financing system of the long-term care infrastructureLänder are responsible for provision and investment financing of the care facilities; the ongoing operating and care costs are to be paid by the persons in need of long-term care or their financing institutions.

    Social assistance: providers of care assistance are institutions of social assistance.

    Informal caregivers: persons who are taking care of a person in need of long-term care in their home environment on a non-professional basis (e.g. relatives, neighbours, friends).

    Professional providers: integration of care providers by authorisation in a form of care contracts
    The basis for the authorisation to provide care services is the so called ‘care contract’. It regulates the benefits in kind and personal services that the insured persons can legally claim, and is concluded between the care funds and the provider of outpatient as well as residential care.

    Prospective compensation rate. The contractual provisions in the care contract are binding for all parties concerned, especially in the prospective orientated compensation negotiations as ceiling for the compensation. The (agreed) charges per day have to be economic and performance related, a retroactive reimbursement of costs is not possible. The person in need of care has to pay the compensation parts that exceed the benefits of the long-term care insurance as well as the costs for lodging and board (in certain circumstances investment costs as well).

    Quality assurance: all authorised care facilities have to guarantee high quality, decent and activating care and supervision.

    Long-term care

    Benefits for the carer

    Statutory long-term care insurance:

    Payment of pension insurance contributions for caring family members and other informal carers by the long-term care insurance. A protection without contribution is also provided for these persons by the accident insurance. Contributions to the statutory pension insurance are also paid during the carer’s holidays.

    Employees in companies with at least 15 employees have an entitlement to unpaid leave for up to 6 months in order to take care of a relative (so-called care time). As a general rule, their family health insurance continues in this time and the pension-insurance continues via the long-term care insurance fund. The entitlement from the unemployment insurance remains because of the contributions of the long-term care insurance fund. The contributions for health insurance and long-term care insurance are borne by the long-term care insurance fund up to the minimum contribution amount if necessary.
    If a person suddenly becomes dependent on long-term care, employees can stay away from work at short notice for up to 10 days in order to ensure care in need during this time or organise suitable care (so-called short-term work incapability).

    Social assistance: payment of the contributions for the carer for adequate old age provision, unless this is provided otherwise.

    Long-term care

    User charges

    Statutory long-term care insurance:

    Care benefits contribute to mitigate the physical, mental and financial burden resulting from the need of long-term care. Not all costs relating to care are covered; only the cash benefits and benefits in kind mentioned above. If the total expenses of long-term care of a single person exceed the covered amount, the person pays the difference as participation.

     

  • Social protection system of elderly people in general

    Country

    Germany

    GDP at market prices Purchasing Power Standard per inhabitant, 2011

    30 300

    Pension expenditure,  % of GDP, 2010

    10.2%

    Expenditure on care for elderly, % of GDP, 2008

    0.2%

    At-risk-of-poverty rate, age group 65 years or over, 2011

    14.2%

    Old-age pensions

    Basic principles

    Compulsory social insurance scheme financed by contributions and taxes covering employees and certain groups of self-employed providing earnings-related pensions depending on contributions and the duration of affiliation.

    Old-age pensions

    Legal retirement age in standard case

    67 years (standard retirement age)

    The Act on the adjustment of the standard retirement age to demographic development and the reinforcement of the principles of statutory pension insurance financing (Pension Insurance Retirement Ages Act - RV-Altersgrenzenanpassungsgesetz) of 20 April 2007 (BGBl. I p. 554), provides for the standard retirement age to be gradually increased to 67 years from 2012 to 2029, starting with those born in 1947. The first increase amounts to one month per year (65 to 66) and the following to two months per year (66 to 67). For all those born after 1963, the standard retirement age of 67 years shall apply. It will still be possible for insured persons to retire at the age of 65 years without having their pensions reduced if they complete 45 years of compulsory contributions from employment and care and from child-raising periods up to the age of 10 of the child.

    Financing principles for old-age pensions

    Contributions (insured persons and employers) and taxes

    Benefits for older unemployed

    No special provision

    Financing systems for long-term benefits

    Case of  old-age benefits

    Current income financing (‘pay as you go’)

     

    Health care

    Basic principles

    Statutory Health Insurance:

    Compulsory social insurance scheme for employees and categories of persons assimilated thereto up to a certain income limit and with income-related contributions as well as entitlement to social compensation (Sozialausgleich) in case of financial overstraining. Benefits-in-kind system with exceptions.

    Since 1 January 2009, there is a general obligation for the entire population to become affiliated with the statutory or private health insurance.

    Health care

    Benefits for prosthesis, spectacles, hearing-aids

    The prices for medical supplies are agreed between the sickness funds and the care providers. If there are fixed amounts determined for medical supplies, these constitute the ceiling for the contract prices.

    Participation of the insured:

    10% of the cost for aids, at least € 5, € 10 at most, not more than the price of the product. 10% of the costs for remedies plus an additional € 10 per prescription; children are exempted.
    The entitlement to vision aids is limited to children and young persons up to the completion of the age of 18 and to insured persons with severe vision impairments. Therapeutic vision aids used for treatment of eye injuries or eye diseases are excluded from this restriction.

     

  • Computer and Internet skills of the general population

    Country

     

    Germany

    Use of computers

     

     

    Enforced lack of a computer

    2011

     

    One adult 65 years or over. Cannot afford

     

    17.3%

     

     

     

    E-skills

    2012

     

    Individuals who have copied or moved a file or folder

     

    68.0%

    Individuals who have used copy or cut and paste tools to duplicate or move information on screen

     

    66.0%

    Individuals who have compressed files

     

    34.0%

     

     

     

    Way of obtaining e-skills

    2011

     

    Individuals who have obtained IT skills through self-study (learning by doing)

     

    66.0%

     

     

     

    Reasons for not having taken a computer course

    2011

     

    Individuals who do not need to take a computer course because their computer skills are sufficient

     

    43.0%

    Individuals who do not need to take a computer course because they rarely use computers

     

    8.0%

     

     

     

    Use of Internet

     

     

    Frequency of Internet access:

    2012

     

    Once a week (including every day)

     

    78.0%

    Daily

     

    65.0%

    Internet used for

    2012

     

    Internet banking

     

    45.0%

    Interaction with public authorities (last 12 months)

     

    51.0%

     

     

     

    Mobile Internet access with portable computer

     

     

    Every day or almost every day 2012

     

    9.0%

     

     

     

    Individuals' level of Internet skills

    2011

     

    Individuals who have used a search engine to find information

     

    80.0%

    Individuals who have sent an email with attached files

     

    70.0%

    Individuals who have posted messages to chat rooms, newsgroups or an online discussion forum

     

    31.0%

    Individuals who have used the Internet to make phone calls

     

    20.0%

    Individuals using the Internet for seeking health-related information

     

    54.0%

     

     

     

    Concern about possible problems related to Internet usage

    2010

     

    Strongly concerned about catching a virus or other computer infection (e.g. worm or Trojan horse) resulting in loss of information or time

     

    28.0%

    Mildly concerned about catching a virus or other computer infection (e.g. worm or Trojan horse) resulting in loss of information or time

     

    46.0%

    Not at all concerned about catching a virus or other computer infection (e.g. worm or Trojan horse) resulting in loss of information or time

     

    8.0%

     

     

     

    Security related problems experienced through using the Internet for private purposes in the last 12 months.

    2010

     

    Caught a virus or other computer infection (e.g. worm or Trojan horse) resulting in loss of information or time

     

    18.0%

    Financial loss as a result of receiving fraudulent messages ('phishing') or getting redirected to fake websites asking for personal information ('pharming')

     

    2.0%

     

     

     

    Activities via Internet not done because of security concerns

    2010

     

    Security concerns kept individual from ordering or buying goods or services for private use

     

    9.0%

    Security concerns kept individual from communicating with public services and administrations

     

    11.0%

     

     

     

    Use and update of IT security software or tool to protect the private computer and data

    2010

     

    Use any kind of IT security software or tool (anti-virus, anti-spam,firewall, etc.) in order to protect private computer and data

     

    73.0%

    Don't use any kind of IT security software or tool (anti-virus, anti-spam, firewall, etc.) in order to protect private computer and data

     

    3.0%

    Don't know if use any kind of IT security software or tool (anti-virus, anti-spam, firewall, etc.) in order to protect private computer and data

     

    4.0%

     

     

     

    Frequency of safety copies or back up files from the computer on any external storage device

    2010

     

    Frequency of safety copies/back up files: always or almost always

     

    15.0%

    Frequency of safety copies/back up files: Never or hardly ever

     

    26.0%