×
×

Italia

General information
Información General
Informations générales
Informazioni generali
Vispārīgā infromācija
Informații generale
Education and work of social carers
Educación y trabajo de cuidadores/as sociales
Formation et conditions de travail des ADV
Formazione e condizioni di lavoro delle assistenti familiari
Aprūpētāju izglītība un darbs
Educația și munca îngrijitorilor la domiciliu
Cuidados de larga duración y situación de los/as trabajadores/as sociales
L'accompagement de longue durée et les ADV
Assistenti familiari e assistenza domiciliare
Ilglaicīgā aprūpe un sociālo darbinieku situācija
Îngrijirea pe termen lung și îngrijitorii la domiciliu
Long-term care and social workers
Social protection system of elderly people in general
Sistema de protección social para las personas mayores en general
Système de protection sociale pour les personnes agées
Il sistema dell'assistenza socio-sanitaria alla popolazione anziana
Vecu cilvēku sociālās aizsardzības sistēma
Sistemul de protecție socială a persoanelor în vârstă, în general
Computer and Internet skills of the general population
Competencias informáticas y de internet de la población general
Maîtrise de l'informatique et d'Internet de la population dans son ensemble
Competenze informatiche e digitali
Vispārējās iedzīvotāju datoru un interneta prasmes
Competențele legate de utilizarea calculatorului și a internetului ale populației în general
  • General information

    Country

     

    Italy

    Total population

    2012

    60 820 696

    Proportion of population

     

     

    Aged 65-79 years

    2001

    14.3%

     

    2012

    14.5%

    Aged 80 years and more

    2001

    4.2%

     

    2012

    6.1%

    Old-age dependency ratio

    1990

    21.5

     

    2001

    27.4

     

    2012

    31.6

    Old-age dependency ratio projections

    2020

    34.76

     

    2030

    41.14

    Life expectancy at birth, years

    2011

     

    Males

     

    80.1

    Females

     

    85.3

    Life expectancy at age 65, years

    2011

     

    Males

     

    18.8

    Females

     

    22.6

    Healthy life years expectancy at birth

    2011

     

    Males

     

    63.4

    Females

     

    62.7

    Duration of working life, years

    2011

     

    Males

     

    34.7

    Females

     

    24.4

    Employment rate of older workers aged 55 to 64, total

     

    37.9%

     

  • Education and work of social carers

    Country

    Italy

    The overall management and organising of the education of social workers in the country is the responsibility of

    Regional governments

    Financing of the education of social workers

    The financing by state funding is of moderate level, financing by local governments is at low level.

    The rights to acquire education of social workers in the country

    Foreign residents should have a permit to stay

    The organisation of the further education of social workers in the country is the responsibility of

    Regional governments

    Financing of further education of social workers

    The financing by local governments is at low level, other sources are lacking

    Amount of students of social worker education in the country

    There exist only students of short time courses, their number is not sufficient

    Overall management and implementation of European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing (EIPAHA) in the country is the responsibility of

    Regional governments

    The main resources of financing of European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing

    The financing by state funding and by local governments is at low level.

    The required background of the social workers in the country

    The leavers of short time professional courses can freely work as social workers. Persons with elementary of secondary education can work under control.

    The requirements to the professions of social worker concerning the level of ICT skills

    The ICT skills are not considered important, except the smart phone use for remote control and the remote health monitoring which is considered preferable but are not required.

    The standards of the profession of social worker (social carer) in the country

    Are developed at the regional level.

    System of carers activities in the country

    Homecare services to support or substitute for family care in Italy are addressed to elderly people and vulnerable users. Social welfare services are provided at the users’ residences and aim at preventing and removing situations of need and distress, facilitating family and social integration and encouraging the users’ permanence in their homes. There are various types of elderly homecare services, both public and private.

    Programming of public social welfare services is carried out at regional level, whereas delivery of services is entrusted to municipalities.

    Public homecare services

    The main types of public homecare services are the following: Homecare, Integrated homecare services, Homecare allowance.

    Private homecare services

    In addition to public services provided by the municipalities, further elderly homecare services are provided by private companies and/or individuals:

    ·    Health and social welfare services;

    ·    Daily living care services, mostly provided by foreign workers (‘family care assistants’ or ‘caregivers’).

    Homecare services provided by private caregivers are the most common services in the Italian welfare system. They are regulated by an employment contract between the family of the elderly in need of assistance (employer) and the caregiver (employee). A vast majority of caregivers come from foreign countries.

    Individual rights to carer’s VET in the country

    Training policy in Italy is entrusted to Regional governments; the terms and content of training programmes for caregivers are defined by regional decrees and specific guidelines.

    The Emilia-Romagna Regional Government Education and Training Service designed a training path for caregivers divided into three subject areas: institutional, relational, technical-operational.

    Training for caregivers is provided by regionally accredited training providers (VET centres). A list of accredited training providers is available in the website of the Regional administration (www.regione.emilia-romagna.it). Training courses provided by accredited providers are formally recognized by the Regional Government.

    Training courses are mainly funded by expressly allocated national funds or by the ESF, and are free of charge for the trainees. The contents of the courses must comply with those defined at regional level.

    Legal framework of carer education in the country

    The Emilia-Romagna Education and Training Service has designed a training path for caregivers divided into three subject areas:

    1. Institutional skills. Understanding the social and institutional context relevant to private homecare services and applying the principles of professional ethics

    2. Relational skills Effective communication

    3. Technical-operational skills

    ·    Supporting the care recipient’s mobility

    ·    Taking care of the care recipient’s personal hygiene

    ·    Providing assistance to food preparation and care recipient’s feeding

    ·    Taking care of the care recipient’s environment hygiene

    The contents of the courses provided by regionally accredited training providers (VET centres) must comply with those described above.

    Opportunities for carer’s VET in the country

    Requirements for access to training are:

    ·    Permit of stay (for foreign trainees)

    ·    Entrance skills assessment (including Italian language skills for foreign trainees).

    Courses last 120 hours (field practice included) but they may have shorter duration if trainees already hold a qualification or a certificate of competence.

    Some courses for caregivers include a module on basic computer literacy in addition to the three central subject areas.

    The evaluation of the trainees’ learning attainments is performed by trainers in itinere through observation and assessment of the trainees’ performance during the training.

    Certification system of carers in the country

    Formal qualification of ‘Carer’ as such does not exist in Emilia-Romagna. However, regional regulations mention a number of skills relevant to caregiving, which can be certified through a declaration of competence. This allows credit recognition for access to further training aimed at achieving a qualification (‘Healthcare Assistant’). In case of early interruption of the course the trainees are entitled to receive a declaration of the competences acquired as of the date of interruption (relevant to the Training Units actually attended and for which formal testing of skill has been taken).

    System of validation of prior experience in the country

    Procedures systems and models for validation of prior learning in Italy are heterogeneous since they are usually structured at regional levels and not necessarily coincide in all contexts from the point of view of approaches and methodologies.

    Evaluation of the situation in the labour market of carers in the country

    High demand (need for home care services). Supply is made up mainly of female workers coming from foreign countries – often low-skilled and often undeclared

    Evaluation of the participation of the country in the European collaboration in the field of care on the old age people

    The country is involved

    General description of the professional status of the carers in the country

    No special professional status – often low-skilled workers.

    Description of the place of work of the carers in the country

    At the homes of the person being cared for

    Requirements to the personality of the candidates for carer (moral stability, physical condition, addiction to nicotine, etc.)

    N/A

    Requirements to an immigrant as a candidate for carers job

    Depends on the employing family.

    Work regulations of carers in the country

    ·    Working hours: live-in basis or hourly basis

    ·    Rest period and rest breaks: to be agreed with employers

    ·    Night working: to be agreed with employers

    ·    Holidays: based on National Bargaining Agreement

    ·    Sick leave, maternity leave: based on National Bargaining Agreement

    ·    Unemployment benefits: None

    Main principles of payment system of carers

    Salary paid on monthly basis. Minimum salary for a caregiver (regulated by the National CBA) is 750.00 euro per month for 3rd grade workers and 850.00 euro per month for 2nd grade workers. The costs are entirely sustained by the employer (i.e., the elderly or the elderly’s family) who also defines the recruitment modalities.

    Other benefits of carers additional to the salary (telephone, covered transportation expenses, any discounts, etc.)

    None

    The motivation for job of carer

    Usually done by foreign citizens – not on choice but due to need for a job.

    Average duration of work in the position of a carer?

    On average some years, after which the workers go back to their countries. It also depends on the health conditions of the person being cared for.

     

  • Long-term care and the situation of social workers

    Country

    Italy

    The responsible body for overall management of social worker activities in the country

    Regional governments

    Long-term care

    Basic principles

    Benefits that can be considered as long-term care benefits are provided under both the social security and the social welfare system.

    Benefits under the invalidity and incapacity scheme are contribution-based and are administered at national level. Civilian invalidity benefits are non-contributory benefits aimed at guaranteeing sufficient ressources. They are administered at regional level.

    Benefits are granted both as benefits in kind and cash benefits.

    Long-term care

    Field of application

    Invalidity and incapacity insurance:

    -   Recipients of the invalidity insurance (assegno ordinario d'invalidità, AOI) and of the incapacity pension (pensione di inabilità).

    -   Civilian invalidity.

    -   Disabled persons.

    Organisation of Long-term care

    Informal caregivers and professional providers

    Public sector professional providers: doctors and paramedical professionals.

    Informal caregivers: household members or other people close to the beneficiary.

    Long-term care

    Benefits for the carer

    No specific benefits for the carer. However, periods of leave to take care of a disabled family member are taken into account as periods of insurance for the purposes of pension insurance.

    Long-term care

    User charges

    Participation of the beneficiary takes the form of a co-payment, the amount of which varies according to the type of the benefit and the degree of invalidity.

    Totally disabled persons are exempted from participation.

     

  • Social protection system of the older people in general

    Country

    Italy

    GDP at market prices. Purchasing Power Standard per inhabitant, 2011

    25 100

    Pension expenditure,  % of GDP, 2010

    14.0%

    Expenditure on care for elderly, % of GDP, 2008

    0.1%

    At-risk-of-poverty rate, age group 65 years or over, 2011

    17.0%

    Old-age pensions

    Basic principles

    Work Insurance General Compulsory Scheme (Assicurazione Generale Obbligatoria, AGO) financed through contributions, covering the employees of the private sector by providing benefits calculated according to two determining factors: age and accrued contributions.

    Special schemes are provided for the self-employed as well as a certain number of special pension funds for specific categories of workers.

    Old-age pensions

    Legal retirement age in standard case

    ·    Male employees of the private sector, self-employed and para-subordinate workers: 66 years;

    ·    Male and female civil servants: 66 years;

    ·    Female employees of the private sector: 62 years;

    ·    Female self-employed and para-subordinate workers: 63 ears and 6 months.

    The retirement age will be gradually increased from 2012 onwards, according to the increase in life expectancy as provided for under art. 12 of the Legislative Decree of 31 May 2010 No. 78, converted into Law No. 122/2010.

    As of January 2012, the pension payment deferment scheme shall no longer apply.

    Financing principles for old-age pensions

    Contributions (employees and employers).
     

    Benefits for older unemployed

    No special provision.

    Financing systems for long-term benefits

    Case of  old-age benefits

    Current income financing (‘pay as you go’).
     

    Health care

    Basic principles

    Public health service for all inhabitants (based on residency).
    Compulsory social insurance system for the active population (employed and self-employed persons) and beneficiaries of a social security benefit, financed by employers’ and insured persons’ contributions as well as through state subsidies.

    Health care

    Benefits for prosthesis, spectacles, hearing-aids

    Prosthesis: supplied to the different categories of disabled by the local Health Centres (Unità Sanitarie Locali, USL).

     

  • Computer and Internet skills of the general population

    Country

     

    Italy

    Use of computers

     

     

    Enforced lack of a computer

    2011

     

    One adult 65 years or over. Cannot afford

     

    2.6%

    E-skills

    2012

     

    Individuals who have copied or moved a file or folder

     

    53.0%

    Individuals who have used copy or cut and paste tools to duplicate or move information on screen

     

    53.0%

    Individuals who have compressed files

     

    32.0%

    Way of obtaining e-skills

    2011

     

    Individuals who have obtained IT skills through self-study (learning by doing)

     

    45.0%

    Reasons for not having taken a computer course

    2011

     

    Individuals who do not need to take a computer course because their computer skills are sufficient

     

    25.0%

    Individuals who do not need to take a computer course because they rarely use computers

     

    8.0%

    Use of Internet

     

     

    Frequency of Internet access:

    2012

     

    Once a week (including every day)

     

    53.0%

    Daily

     

    51.0%

    Internet used for

    2012

     

    Internet banking

     

    21.0%

    Interaction with public authorities (last 12 months)

     

    19.0%

    Mobile Internet access with portable computer

     

     

    Every day or almost every day 2012

     

    5.0%

    Individuals' level of Internet skills

    2011

     

    Individuals who have used a search engine to find information

     

    57.0%

    Individuals who have sent an email with attached files

     

    51.0%

    Individuals who have posted messages to chat rooms, newsgroups or an online discussion forum

     

    32.0%

    Individuals who have used the Internet to make phone calls

     

    23.0%

    Individuals using the Internet for seeking health-related information

     

    27.0%

    Concern about possible problems related to Internet usage

    2010

     

    Strongly concerned about catching a virus or other computer infection (e.g. worm or Trojan horse) resulting in loss of information or time

     

    17.0%

    Mildly concerned about catching a virus or other computer infection (e.g. worm or Trojan horse) resulting in loss of information or time

     

    27.0%

    Not at all concerned about catching a virus or other computer infection (e.g. worm or Trojan horse) resulting in loss of information or time

     

    10.0%

    Security related problems experienced through using the Internet for private purposes in the last 12 months.

    2010

     

    Caught a virus or other computer infection (e.g. worm or Trojan horse) resulting in loss of information or time

     

    24.0%

    Financial loss as a result of receiving fraudulent messages ('phishing') or getting redirected to fake websites asking for personal information ('pharming')

     

    1.0%

    Activities via Internet not done because of security concerns

    2010

     

    Security concerns kept individual from ordering or buying goods or services for private use

     

    24.0%

    Security concerns kept individual from communicating with public services and administrations

     

    11.0%

    Use and update of IT security software or tool to protect the private computer and data

    2010

     

    Use any kind of IT security software or tool (anti-virus, anti-spam,firewall, etc.) in order to protect private computer and data

     

    36.0%

    Don't use any kind of IT security software or tool (anti-virus, anti-spam, firewall, etc.) in order to protect private computer and data

     

    10.0%

    Don't know if use any kind of IT security software or tool (anti-virus, anti-spam, firewall, etc.) in order to protect private computer and data

     

    7.0%

    Frequency of safety copies or back up files from the computer on any external storage device

    2010

     

    Frequency of safety copies/back up files: always or almost always

     

    8.0%

    Frequency of safety copies/back up files: Never or hardly ever

     

    14.0%

    Evaluation of the computer and internet skills of the carers in the country

    Generally low.