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Latvia

General information
Información General
Informations générales
Informazioni generali
Vispārīgā infromācija
Informații generale
Education and work of social carers
Educación y trabajo de cuidadores/as sociales
Formation et conditions de travail des ADV
Formazione e condizioni di lavoro delle assistenti familiari
Aprūpētāju izglītība un darbs
Educația și munca îngrijitorilor la domiciliu
Cuidados de larga duración y situación de los/as trabajadores/as sociales
L'accompagement de longue durée et les ADV
Assistenti familiari e assistenza domiciliare
Ilglaicīgā aprūpe un sociālo darbinieku situācija
Îngrijirea pe termen lung și îngrijitorii la domiciliu
Long-term care and social workers
Social protection system of elderly people in general
Sistema de protección social para las personas mayores en general
Système de protection sociale pour les personnes agées
Il sistema dell'assistenza socio-sanitaria alla popolazione anziana
Vecu cilvēku sociālās aizsardzības sistēma
Sistemul de protecție socială a persoanelor în vârstă, în general
Computer and Internet skills of the general population
Competencias informáticas y de internet de la población general
Maîtrise de l'informatique et d'Internet de la population dans son ensemble
Competenze informatiche e digitali
Vispārējās iedzīvotāju datoru un interneta prasmes
Competențele legate de utilizarea calculatorului și a internetului ale populației în general
  • General information

    Country

     

    Latvia

    Total population

    2012

    2 041 763

    Proportion of population

     

     

    Aged 65-79 years

    2001

    12.6%

     

    2012

    14.1%

    Aged 80 years and more

    2001

    2.6%

     

    2012

    4.5%

    Old-age dependency ratio

    1990

    17.7

     

    2001

    22.6

     

    2012

    27.7

    Old-age dependency ratio projections

    2020

    28.84

     

    2030

    36.17

     

     

     

    Life expectancy at birth, years

    2011

     

    Males

     

    68.6

    Females

     

    78.8

    Life expectancy at age 65, years

    2011

     

    Males

     

    13.4

    Females

     

    18.7

    Healthy life years expectancy at birth

    2011

     

    Males

     

    53.7

    Females

     

    56.7

    Duration of working life, years

    2011

     

    Males

     

    34.6

    Females

     

    34.0

    Employment rate of older workers aged 55 to 64, total

     

    50.5%

     

  • Education and work of social carers

    Country

    Latvia

    The overall management and organising of the education of social workers in the country is the responsibility of

    Ministry of Education, private education institutions

    Financing of the education of social workers

    The financing by state funding is moderate and by local municipalities is low. Financing by students themselves is important. Local municipality funds only several workshops for their social workers to increase competencies. Government as a priority funds science related (exact) subjects.

    The rights to acquire education of social workers in the country

    No restrictions

    The organisation of the further education of social workers in the country is the responsibility of

    Local governments, organisations that employ social workers.

    Financing of further education of social workers

    The financing by state funding is lacking, financing by local governments is important. Financing by students themselves is at a moderate level. Organisations that employ social workers also participate in the financing.

    Amount of students of social worker education in the country

    The number of holders of the master degree in social work and of second level higher education professionals is not sufficient. The number of these types of professionals is sufficient.

    Overall management and implementation of European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing (EIPAHA) in the country is the responsibility of

    Ministry of Welfare and local municipalities

    The main resources of financing of European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing

    N/A.

    The required background of the social workers in the country

    No restrictions, the persons with only elementary or secondary education are accepted as carers. 

    The requirements to the professions of social worker concerning the level of ICT skills

    No requirements

    The standards of the profession of social worker (social carer) in the country

    There is a classification of professions – it regulates what kind of education is needed for each profession, including social workers and carers.

    System of carers activities in the country

    There are two main parties in social home care – 1) social 2) and care services. Social services assess potential home care recipients, identifying necessary tasks related to home and personal care. These tasks are collected on task package and are sent to care services. Role of care service is to organize home care according to task package assessed by socials. Traditionally home care is organized according to regional distribution. Each regional home care service has facilitator, who organizes carers for their regional branches.

    The course of the system is the following:

    Assessment (socials) à Planning, managing carers (care services) à Reports (care services)

    Individual rights to carer’s VET in the country

    The carers have rights to improve their educational level by their own expenses. Traditionally, care services organize local trainings (with certification) for their workers. But there are no mandatory requirements.

    Legal framework of carer education in the country

    Profession standard à social carer professionà education programmes (1, 2 level VET, bachelor, master degree programmes).

    Opportunities for carer’s VET in the country

    First and second level vocational education programmes. 

    Reference - http://www.niid.lv/niid_search?qy=apr%C5%A Bp%C4%93t%C4%81js&page=2

    Certification system of carers in the country

    First and second level vocational education qualifications for carers.

    Reference

    http://www.niid.lv/niid_search?qy=apr%C5%A Bp%C4%93t%C4%81js&page=2

    System of validation of prior experience in the country

    According to CV, job interview, informal information exchange among home care service providers. There is no special system.

    Evaluation of the situation in the labour market of carers in the country

    Mainly, the labour market of carers is in Riga. Carer salary depends on hourly rate and worked hours. A hourly rates among different home care services are similar. Carers often work on that regional home care service, where they live. After crisis Latvia home care services has a lack of carers, because of low final salary.

    Evaluation of the participation of the country in the European collaboration in the field of care on the old age people

    Latvia country collaboration with Europe in the field of care can be assessed as weak. The field of care has less positive changes in last years. Situation directly depends of Latvia financial budget that has decreased in crisis.

    General description of the professional status of the carers in the country

    Carer is a profession in social sector whose mission is to provide care services for elderly. Carers are employees with no professional education (in practice), and they have contracted with care service providers. Care services providers usually are contracted with local municipalities.

    Description of the place of work of the carers in the country

    Carers are organized by facilitators working in organizations. In Latvia, especially in Riga, there are many care service organizations.

    Requirements to the personality of the candidates for carer (moral stability, physical condition, addiction to nicotine, etc.)

    Informal requirements are very important for selection of workers as well as for planning purposes. Moral stability, patience are necessary for doing everyday tasks (pamper replacement, washing, cleaning). Carer shouldn’t offend care recipients even in case of disputes. Carer should be understandable and with no addictions to alcohol, nicotine e.t.c.

    Requirements to an immigrant as a candidate for carers job

    Yes, it is important for planning purposes. In Latvia Russian care receivers are serviced by Russian carers. It is an important factor to organize harmonious relationships between care workers and receivers.

    Work regulations of carers in the country

    ·    Working hours: not limited, depending of work schedule.

    ·    Rest period and rest breaks: no special (depending of work schedule) vocation in accordance of legislation.

    ·    Night working: possible, but not practiced with care workers, in practice only care givers.

    ·    Holidays: in accordance with legislation.

    ·    Sick leave, maternity leave: in accordance with legislation.

    ·    Unemployment benefits: in accordance with legislation.

    Main principles of payment system of carers

    Carers’ salary depends of hourly rate and worked hours. Hourly rate depends of difficulty level (1-4). Difficulty level is assessed by social workers identifying necessary tasks.

    Other benefits of carers additional to the salary (telephone, covered transportation expenses, any discounts, etc.)

    Depend on care service organization. Most common benefits are tickets for public transport, telephones, sometimes fuel for transportation. Also discounts to organization services.

    The motivation for job of carer

    There are no researches about motivation, but from experience they can be following – inability to find a job elsewhere, wish for additional income, starting a career in social sector (students), responsibility to relatives, neighbours and friends.

    Average duration of work in the position of a carer?

    2 years.

     

  • Long-term care and the situation of social workers

    Country

    Latvia

    The responsible body for overall management of social worker activities in the country

    Ministry of Welfare and local municipalities

    Long-term care

    Basic principles

    Long-term care is provided according to person's individual needs and resources (assessment is carried out by social worker). Services to persons in need are provided in their place of residence or as close as possible to their place of residence (home care, semi-residential care).

    If a person needs special services, social care is provided by long-term social care institutions.

    Financed by state budget or municipalities budgets.

    There is no specific scheme for a long-term care it is integrated within social services for elderly, children and disabled.

    Long-term care

    Field of application

    Latvian citizens, non-citizens and foreigners who have received their personal identity number (except persons who have received temporary residence permits).

    Organisation of Long-term care

    Informal caregivers and professional providers

    1. Informal providers:

    If a person requires care at the place of residence, the local government shall first assess the possibilities for family members living together with this person or persons who have common expenses for food with the person to be cared for and who live in the same dwelling with him or her to provide the necessary care. If family members are caring for the person, the local government shall support these family members psychologically, by consulting and training them and, if necessary, also materially. If a person lives alone or the family members living together with this person, due to old age, their state of health or employment cannot ensure the care required, the person has the right to receive a social care service.

    2. Professional providers:

    The local government in the territory of which a person has registered his or her main place of residence has a duty to provide the person with a possibility to receive social services and social assistance corresponding to his or her needs. In order to ensure the professional assessment of inhabitants’ needs and the qualitative provision of social services, each local government has a social work specialist or shall establish a local government social service office.

    Long-term care

    Benefits for the carer

    It is up to municipality’s decision.

    The conditions for provision of benefits for the carer depend on municipality and the internal regulations they approve.

    Long-term care

    User charges

    A client has a duty to pay for the received social care if it is not specified otherwise. If a client or a person in charge of payment for the client is unable to pay for a social care service, the costs of the service shall be covered from the local government budget in accordance with the procedures specified by the Cabinet.
    The social security income (based on social insurance, e.g. invalidity, old-age, etc.) of the person in need is used to cover expenses related to his/her stay in a long-term care institution except for 10% of the income from pension or State Social Security Benefit (Valsts sociālā nodrošinājuma pabalsts), which has to stay at his/her disposal for personal expenses.

     

  • Social protection system of the older people in general

    Country

    Latvia

    GDP at market prices Purchasing Power Standard per inhabitant, 2011

    14 700

    Pension expenditure,  % of GDP, 2010

    5.1%

    Expenditure on care for elderly, % of GDP, 2008

    0.17%

    At-risk-of-poverty rate, age group 65 years or over, 2011

    8.9%

    Old-age pensions

    Basic principles

    Compulsory social protection scheme financed by contributions for the active population (employees and self-employed) and assimilated groups consisting of two pillars:

    1st pillar: pay-as-you-go-scheme providing earnings-related pensions depending on contributions and the duration of affiliation.

    2nd pillar: funded (run by state) scheme providing benefits linked to the accrued pension capital.

    On voluntary basis: private pension insurance (3rd tier) financed by contributions.

    Old-age pensions

    Legal retirement age in standard case

    Men and women: 62 years

    Financing principles for old-age pensions

    Contributions (insured persons and employers) plus state budget (covers contributions on behalf of certain categories of individuals).
     

    Benefits for older unemployed

    No special provision

    Financing systems for long-term benefits

    Case of  old-age benefits

    1st tier: current income financing (‘pay as you go’)

    2nd tier: funded

    Health care

    Basic principles

    Tax financed health care system for all inhabitants (based on residency).
    Private health care supplements the public scheme.

    Health care

    Benefits for prosthesis, spectacles, hearing-aids

    Not provided by the national health care system. Exception: cochlear implants and spectacles for children and all kind of endoprothesis.

     

  • Computer and Internet skills of the general population

    Country

     

    Latvia

    Use of computers

     

     

    Enforced lack of a computer

    2011

     

    One adult 65 years or over. Cannot afford

     

    18.4%

    E-skills

    2012

     

    Individuals who have copied or moved a file or folder

     

    61.0%

    Individuals who have used copy or cut and paste tools to duplicate or move information on screen

     

    59.0%

    Individuals who have compressed files

     

    38.0%

    Way of obtaining e-skills

    2011

     

    Individuals who have obtained IT skills through self-study (learning by doing)

     

    59.0%

    Reasons for not having taken a computer course

    2011

     

    Individuals who do not need to take a computer course because their computer skills are sufficient

     

    30.0%

    Individuals who do not need to take a computer course because they rarely use computers

     

    11.0%

    Use of Internet

     

     

    Frequency of Internet access:

    2012

     

    Once a week (including every day)

     

    70.0%

    Daily

     

    57.0%

    Internet used for

    2012

     

    Internet banking

     

    47.0%

    Interaction with public authorities (last 12 months)

     

    47.0%

    Mobile Internet access with portable computer

     

     

    Every day or almost every day 2012

     

    9.0%

    Individuals' level of Internet skills

    2011

     

    Individuals who have used a search engine to find information

     

    71.0%

    Individuals who have sent an email with attached files

     

    62.0%

    Individuals who have posted messages to chat rooms, newsgroups or an online discussion forum

     

    61.0%

    Individuals who have used the Internet to make phone calls

     

    52.0%

    Individuals using the Internet for seeking health-related information

     

    38.0%

    Concern about possible problems related to Internet usage

    2010

     

    Strongly concerned about catching a virus or other computer infection (e.g. worm or Trojan horse) resulting in loss of information or time

     

    42.0%

    Mildly concerned about catching a virus or other computer infection (e.g. worm or Trojan horse) resulting in loss of information or time

     

    18.0%

    Not at all concerned about catching a virus or other computer infection (e.g. worm or Trojan horse) resulting in loss of information or time

     

    8.0%

    Security related problems experienced through using the Internet for private purposes in the last 12 months.

    2010

     

    Caught a virus or other computer infection (e.g. worm or Trojan horse) resulting in loss of information or time

     

    28.0%

    Financial loss as a result of receiving fraudulent messages ('phishing') or getting redirected to fake websites asking for personal information ('pharming')

     

    5.0%

    Activities via Internet not done because of security concerns

    2010

     

    Security concerns kept individual from ordering or buying goods or services for private use

     

    15.0%

    Security concerns kept individual from communicating with public services and administrations

     

    8.0%

    Use and update of IT security software or tool to protect the private computer and data

    2010

     

    Use any kind of IT security software or tool (anti-virus, anti-spam,firewall, etc.) in order to protect private computer and data

     

    42.0%

    Don't use any kind of IT security software or tool (anti-virus, anti-spam, firewall, etc.) in order to protect private computer and data

     

    8.0%

    Don't know if use any kind of IT security software or tool (anti-virus, anti-spam, firewall, etc.) in order to protect private computer and data

     

    9.0%

    Frequency of safety copies or back up files from the computer on any external storage device

    2010

     

    Frequency of safety copies/back up files: always or almost always

     

    10.0%

    Frequency of safety copies/back up files: Never or hardly ever

     

    20.0%

    Evaluation of the computer and internet skills of the carers in the country

    A situation is different as carers are of different age and target groups. The younger carers - under 35 years - have medium level digital skills (like experienced computer users). Older carers - over 35 years - usually have a low or no digital skills. Most of carers are from the second target group.