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Romania

General information
Información General
Informations générales
Informazioni generali
Vispārīgā infromācija
Informații generale
Education and work of social carers
Educación y trabajo de cuidadores/as sociales
Formation et conditions de travail des ADV
Formazione e condizioni di lavoro delle assistenti familiari
Aprūpētāju izglītība un darbs
Educația și munca îngrijitorilor la domiciliu
Cuidados de larga duración y situación de los/as trabajadores/as sociales
L'accompagement de longue durée et les ADV
Assistenti familiari e assistenza domiciliare
Ilglaicīgā aprūpe un sociālo darbinieku situācija
Îngrijirea pe termen lung și îngrijitorii la domiciliu
Long-term care and social workers
Social protection system of elderly people in general
Sistema de protección social para las personas mayores en general
Système de protection sociale pour les personnes agées
Il sistema dell'assistenza socio-sanitaria alla popolazione anziana
Vecu cilvēku sociālās aizsardzības sistēma
Sistemul de protecție socială a persoanelor în vârstă, în general
Computer and Internet skills of the general population
Competencias informáticas y de internet de la población general
Maîtrise de l'informatique et d'Internet de la population dans son ensemble
Competenze informatiche e digitali
Vispārējās iedzīvotāju datoru un interneta prasmes
Competențele legate de utilizarea calculatorului și a internetului ale populației în general
  • General information

    Country

     

    Latvia

    Total population

    2012

    21 355 849

    Proportion of population

     

     

    Aged 65-79 years

    2001

    11.6%

     

    2012

    11.7%

    Aged 80 years and more

    2001

    1.8%

     

    2012

    3.3%

    Old-age dependency ratio

    1990

    15.6

     

    2001

    19.6

     

    2012

    21.5

    Old-age dependency ratio projections

    2020

    25.68

     

    2030

    30.23

     

     

     

    Life expectancy at birth, years

    2011

     

    Males

     

    71

    Females

     

    78.2

    Life expectancy at age 65, years

    2011

     

    Males

     

    14.3

    Females

     

    17.5

    Healthy life years expectancy at birth

    2011

     

    Males

     

    57.5

    Females

     

    57.1

    Duration of working life, years

    2011

     

    Males

     

    33.9

    Females

     

    29.1

    Employment rate of older workers aged 55 to 64, total

     

    40.0%

     

  • Education and work of social carers

    Country

    Romania

    The overall management and organising of the education of social workers in the country is the responsibility of

    Ministry of Education

    Financing of the education of social workers

    The financing by state funding and by private charity is important, financing by local governments is lacking. Financing by students themselves is at moderate level.

    The rights to acquire education of social workers in the country

    The person should not have any police record and he/she should not be younger than 18 years and should have secondary education.

    The organisation of the further education of social workers in the country is the responsibility of

    Ministry of Education and Ministry of Welfare

    Financing of further education of social workers

    The financing by state funding is lacking, the financing by private charity is important, financing by local governments is at low level. Financing by students themselves is at moderate level.

    Amount of students of social worker education in the country

    Number of all kinds of students is sufficient. The number of jobs available in this area is too small compared with the students that are graduating this profession.

    Overall management and implementation of European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing (EIPAHA) in the country is the responsibility of

    Ministry of Welfare

    The main resources of financing of European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing

    The financing by state funding is at moderate level, the financing by private charity is important however financing by local governments is at low level.

    Financing by families is at moderate level.

    The required background of the social workers in the country

    The persons with only elementary education are not accepted, persons with secondary education can work under control, leavers of short time professional courses can work but will be paid low, students of social workers profession can freely work.

    The requirements to the professions of social worker concerning the level of ICT skills

    It is practically required to be capable to use text editors, to browse Internet, to be informed about computer security and remote monitoring. Use of spread sheets and presentation tools, as well as social networks is considered desirable.  

    The standards of the profession of social worker (social carer) in the country

    Standards for these professions were developed in our country but they don’t include and information’s regarding the acquisition of ICT competences. They include only the general competences for these professions.

    System of carers activities in the country

    Domiciliary care provision for older people is a social service that is still at the beginning and there are just a few organisations that are providing this type of services. Public system regarding domiciliary home care for older people is not highly regulated and there are a lot of lacks at this level. At governmental level aren’t structures that can coordinate the assistance activities for elderly as the National Authority for Child Protection or the National Authority for People with Disabilities. Domiciliary services for older people are categorized more as community service, and once assigned to this category are listed in the exclusive responsibility of local councils of the Church (Orthodox, Catholic). Provision of social and socio-medical services returns to local councils responsibility, directly or based on agreements signed with NGOs, religious units recognized in Romania or other natural or legal persons. Also, home care services are more common in urban areas, insufficient to the needs of the community and too little in rural areas where older people are especially cared by the family.

    Individual rights to carer’s VET in the country

    Individual rights regarding Professional Education and Training of carer’s in Romania are related to the education level of people interesting in becoming professional care workers – they must have at least 8 years of school completed and a paper to certify this. Also they must have and good communication skills, patience, calm and the ability to combine the daily care required with other relaxing activities to ensure the welfare of the elderly cared. All this contributes and helps to run smoothly the specific activities.

    Legal framework of carer education in the country

    In Romania, you can become a professional care worker by following an accredited qualification course that has duration between 250 - 360 hours, level 1 of qualification. These courses are validated by an authorization committee for professional courses. This committee is subordinated to the Ministry of Ministry of Labour, Family and Social Protection and Ministry of National Education. These types of courses are finalising with an exam which is assisted by the National Council for Adult Training and at the end, the participants that are graduating, obtain a qualification certificate.

    Opportunities for carer’s VET in the country

    Training opportunities and professional development of carer’s in our country are quite limited. Those that are working for a private organization have more opportunities to develop their knowledge and to acquire more information related to the social care field because they have the chance to participate in trainings and also the resources they can access are more diversified. NGO’s and charity bodies that employ social care workers are more willing to invest in the education of their employees and to send this people to specialized trainings in order to promote lifelong learning among them and also to better motivate them. In the private sector they have the opportunity to participate in workshops and conferences and to meet other specialists from this area. In the public system, the opportunities are limited because the money that the government allocates for carers education are not sufficient and therefore permanent education and training in this area is not really possible. Those that have their own resources and want to learn more are fallowing trainings individually.

    Certification system of carers in the country

    Certification system of carers in Romania is made in accordance with occupational standard that has as specific competences:

    ·    providing physical care of the person cared;

    ·    providing nutrition and hydration for the cared person;

    ·    providing the hygiene of the space an of the auxiliary objects for the person cared;

    ·    stimulation and socialization with the cared person;

    ·    mobilization and transport for the person cared.

    Competence certificate is recognised both in Romania and in the European Union, so they can work abroad after finalising this course.

    System of validation of prior experience in the country

    Until now a special system wasn’t developed that validates the prior experience of the carers in Romania. The prior experience is recognised based on recommendation letters and in some cases is based on practical tests in order to demonstrate the previous work in domiciliary home care.

    Evaluation of the situation in the labour market of carers in the country

    The quality of social services is an essential reference for the level of civilization of a society. Given the fact that the European average of the monthly salary of a care worker is over 1000 euros, monthly salaries allocated in Romania for the same services are between 150-200 euros, an amount completely ineffective that is discouraging the identification and the preparation of competent persons capable to provide decent care services. The small remuneration from this field made that very few people to move toward the care worker profession and that’s why in this moment on the labour market can be found a lot of vacancies jobs in this area. Most of those people that are graduating a care worker course choose to work abroad because there the working conditions are better. So, the care workers jobs in our country remain unoccupied and the number of Romanians choosing to work in their country is each year smaller and smaller.

    Evaluation of the participation of the country in the European collaboration in the field of care on the old age people

    European collaboration in the field of care on the old age people in our country is not very developed. Stakeholders, private and public institutions that are working in the field of domiciliary home care for older people don’t have so many connections with other specialist from this field. There were realised a few partnerships with people and organisations abroad but the number of projects and collaborations is still small. More connections were realised by the NGO’s because some of them have support from other European organizations. But lately, can be observed that experts in the field are making efforts in order to enlarge the cooperation and to find partners at European level that are interested to develop partnerships and to work together in order to provide better services for old people.

    General description of the professional status of the carers in the country

    Professional status of care workers in Romania is not very well defined on the labor market. Although for this job was elaborated an occupational standard and it is a certified occupation, there are still some lacks in the job description and regarding some of the skills that care workers should acquire in order to become a better professional in the home care field.

    The professional status of care workers is linked with the social system in Romania, especially the part related to domiciliary home care. Unfortunately, even if a big number of care workers are very qualified people and they can offer good services for the older people, this don’t give them the chance to have a very good professional status on the labor market due to the fact that the occupation is not well paid and also the possibility to continuously improve their knowledge is very low especially for those working in the public system.

    This occupation is mainly preferred by women (93% of all those interested to attend such a training course). Also, this occupation is rather preferred by people of middle age (they represent 48.6% of all those interested to attend such a training course), by young people (34, 3%) and by people coming from the older age group (17.1%).

    Description of the place of work of the carers in the country

    The activities developed by the Romanian care workers take place at the residence of the assisted person and involves mostly structured and repetitive tasks.

    Requirements to the personality of the candidates for carer (moral stability, physical condition, addiction to nicotine, etc.)

    In order to become a professional care worker in Romania, the candidates must have fallowing personality features:

    ·    conscientious, honest, fair, serious, rigorous;

    ·    person who likes to work for his peers, with a strong orientation toward interpersonal relationships;

    ·    person who likes the routine and the repetitive activities;

    ·    kind, patient, emotionally balanced, authoritative in certain situations;

    ·    ability to manipulate objects and medical instruments and who prefer a work frame well organized and define.

    Requirements to an immigrant as a candidate for carers job

    Due to the fact that the country is not a country were immigrants want to come to work, especially in the social system, it is not the case for any requirements for this people.

    Work regulations of carers in the country

    ·    Working hours: most of the care workers are working between 6 and 8 hours a day.

    ·    Rest period and rest breaks: week-ends are free/every day they have a break of 30 minutes that can be taken whenever they want between the visits they are doing at the domiciliary of their beneficiaries.

    ·    Night working: In most of the cases is not required to work in the night. Maybe this is required just in emergency cases, for those that are medical assistants and are providing domiciliary home care for older people.

    ·    Holidays: N/A

    ·    Sick leave, maternity leave: In case of sick leave another college/other colleague’s will do the work until the person will recover and get back to work. In case of maternity leave another care worker must be hired for a determined period of time because in Romania most of the mothers are staying home in maternity leave for 2 years which is a long period so that tasks to be distributed to the other members of the team.

    ·    Unemployment benefits: in case that the organization or public body doesn’t have any more the possibility to pay the salary, or the number of beneficiaries decreases – care worker that loses his job can benefit by unemployment benefits. These things are stipulated in the working contract.

    Main principles of payment system of carers

    Care workers in Romania are paid based on a monthly salary that is in the most of cases a little more than the minimum wage. The remuneration is paid once a month on card system by bank transfer or cash – this depends by the type of organization/public body and the number of people that have to be paid.

    Other benefits of carers additional to the salary (telephone, covered transportation expenses, any discounts, etc.)

    Additional benefits to the salary:

    Service phone – a monthly subscription or prepaid SIM card is paid for each care worker in order to have the possibility to talk with the care recipients and to resolve different tasks as - doctor's appointment, speaking with relatives and be in touch with them in order to provide information’s about the older people health problems or other situation, have to chance to communicate with the social worker about the problems encountered in the residence of the beneficiaries.

    Transportation expenses they have a free monthly subscription for all public transportation means, benefit that is given by the local municipalities not only for care workers but also for almost all the staff working on national social system.

    The motivation for job of carer

    In most of the cases motivation is investigated by the people that are recruiting care workers for domiciliary care work. The most frequent kind of motivation comes from the professional satisfactions - helping people in need and those that are suffering – this is the main source of job satisfaction and things that motivate care workers to do this job and to continue to work in this field over the time. Also, another motivation comes from the fact that we have an aging population and this job even if is not very well paid in Romania, offers the opportunity to obtain and to keep your job for many years. The fact that is a safe job and that the chances to become unemployed are small, seems to be a good motivation for most of them.

    Average duration of work in the position of a carer?

    The average duration of work (in years) in the position of care worker in Romania is by 5-10 year, as some of the national research demonstrates.  But, a large number of care workers remain in this job forever.

     

  • Long-term care and the situation of social workers

    Country

    Romania

    The responsible body for overall management of social worker activities in the country

    Ministry of Welfare

                      

    Long-term care

    Basic principles

    Long-term care is organised centrally.

    Long-term care is not covered by a specific scheme but it is provided by different schemes covering largely invalidity, accidents at work and occupational diseases, old-age, and family benefits.

    Long-term care philosophy is generally based on the concepts of residence and need.

    Long-term care is financed by local budgets and state budget. No contributions.

    Both cash and in-kind benefits are provided for long-term care.

    Long-term care

    Field of application

    Persons with handicap (persons for whom the social environment, misfit to their physical, sensorial, psychological or mental impairments, obstructs or limits their access to society based on equal opportunities, and who are therefore in need of protection measures that support integration and social inclusion).
    Senior persons (persons at Standard Retirement Age).

    Organisation of Long-term care

    Informal caregivers and professional providers

    Senior persons:

    ·    informal caregivers: explicitly allowed

    ·    professional providers: caregiver (persoana de ingrijire) hired by the local authorities; public and private social services providers.

    Long-term care

    Benefits for the carer

    Senior persons: as the caregiver (persoana de ingrijire) has an employment contract therefore he/she is covered for different risks.

    Long-term care

    User charges

    Senior persons:

    Home care: The user charges are based on the monthly average maintenance cost. The user charges and the monthly average maintenance cost are set by the local authorities. The user charges must be paid when the beneficiary’s income exceeds one fifth of the Guaranteed Minimum Income (venit minim garantat) for an individual, i.e. RON25.00 (€5.61).

    Residential care: The user charges are based on the monthly average maintenance cost. The user charges and the monthly average maintenance cost are set by the local authorities. The user charges must be paid when the beneficiary is earning income and having legal supporters.

     

  • Social protection system of the older people in general

    Country

    Romania

    GDP at market prices. Purchasing Power Standard per inhabitant, 2011

    n/a

    Pension expenditure,  % of GDP, 2010

    8.4%

    Expenditure on care for elderly, % of GDP, 2008

    0.04%

    At-risk-of-poverty rate, age group 65 years or over, 2011

    14.1%

    Old-age pensions

    Basic principles

    Public system of pensions: social insurance scheme, general, compulsory, contributory, pay-as-you-go, defined benefit, providing both cash and in-kind benefits.

    Old-age pensions

    Legal retirement age in standard case

    Old-age pension (pensie pentru limita de varsta):

    Men: 64 years and 4 months on 1 July 2012, increasing to 65 years on 1 January 2015.

    Women: 59 years and 4 months on 1 July 2012, increasing to 63 years on 1 January 2030.

    Financing principles for old-age pensions

    Contributions (employees, employers, self-employed, unemployed).
     

    Benefits for older unemployed

    No special provision

    Financing systems for long-term benefits

    Case of  old-age benefits

    Current income financing (‘pay-as-you-go’)

     

    Health care

    Basic principles

    Compulsory social insurance scheme for all inhabitants financed mainly by contributions. Benefits-in-kind system.

    The insured persons benefit from a basic package of medical services.

    There is free competition between providers dealing with contracts with the health insurance houses.

    Decentralisation and autonomy in the administration of the Health Insurance Fund.

    Health care

    Benefits for prosthesis, spectacles, hearing-aids

    Insured persons are entitled to a list of medical devices - except spectacles - based on the medical prescription. They may be required to make a contribution toward the cost established according to the annually reviewed price list of medical devices. All categories contribute in a different way to the cost of medical devices. Pensioners pay only 20% of the cost.

     

  • Computer and Internet skills of the general population

    Country

     

    Romania

    Use of computers

     

     

    Enforced lack of a computer

    2011

     

    One adult 65 years or over. Cannot afford

     

    11.3%

    E-skills

    2012

     

    Individuals who have copied or moved a file or folder

     

    33.0%

    Individuals who have used copy or cut and paste tools to duplicate or move information on screen

     

    26.0%

    Individuals who have compressed files

     

    19.0%

    Way of obtaining e-skills

    2011

     

    Individuals who have obtained IT skills through self-study (learning by doing)

     

    28.0%

    Reasons for not having taken a computer course

    2011

     

    Individuals who do not need to take a computer course because their computer skills are sufficient

     

    14.0%

    Individuals who do not need to take a computer course because they rarely use computers

     

    12.0%

    Use of Internet

     

     

    Frequency of Internet access:

    2012

     

    Once a week (including every day)

     

    43.0%

    Daily

     

    29.0%

    Internet used for

    2012

     

    Internet banking

     

    3.0%

    Interaction with public authorities (last 12 months)

     

    31.0%

    Mobile Internet access with portable computer

     

     

    Every day or almost every day 2012

     

    3.0%

    Individuals' level of Internet skills

    2011

     

    Individuals who have used a search engine to find information

     

    42.0%

    Individuals who have sent an email with attached files

     

    36.0%

    Individuals who have posted messages to chat rooms, newsgroups or an online discussion forum

     

    22.0%

    Individuals who have used the Internet to make phone calls

     

    15.0%

    Individuals using the Internet for seeking health-related information

     

    29.0%

    Concern about possible problems related to Internet usage

    2010

     

    Strongly concerned about catching a virus or other computer infection (e.g. worm or Trojan horse) resulting in loss of information or time

     

    8.0%

    Mildly concerned about catching a virus or other computer infection (e.g. worm or Trojan horse) resulting in loss of information or time

     

    23.0%

    Not at all concerned about catching a virus or other computer infection (e.g. worm or Trojan horse) resulting in loss of information or time

     

    9.0%

    Security related problems experienced through using the Internet for private purposes in the last 12 months.

    2010

     

    Caught a virus or other computer infection (e.g. worm or Trojan horse) resulting in loss of information or time

     

    n/a

    Financial loss as a result of receiving fraudulent messages ('phishing') or getting redirected to fake websites asking for personal information ('pharming')

     

    1.0%

    Activities via Internet not done because of security concerns

    2010

     

    Security concerns kept individual from ordering or buying goods or services for private use

     

    3.0%

    Security concerns kept individual from communicating with public services and administrations

     

    2.0%

    Use and update of IT security software or tool to protect the private computer and data

    2010

     

    Use any kind of IT security software or tool (anti-virus, anti-spam,firewall, etc.) in order to protect private computer and data

     

    25.0%

    Don't use any kind of IT security software or tool (anti-virus, anti-spam, firewall, etc.) in order to protect private computer and data

     

    5.0%

    Don't know if use any kind of IT security software or tool (anti-virus, anti-spam, firewall, etc.) in order to protect private computer and data

     

    5.0%

    Frequency of safety copies or back up files from the computer on any external storage device

    2010

     

    Frequency of safety copies/back up files: always or almost always

     

    7.0%

    Frequency of safety copies/back up files: Never or hardly ever

     

    11.0%

    Evaluation of the computer and internet skills of the carers in the country

    In Romania, at this moment digital skills in the care sector are quite low and the main obstacle that leads to this is the lack of funds in this area. There are no funds for equipment’s that can be used by care workers in their care work, devices that can meet their training needs in ICT.

    Digital skills are based and on the age of carers. In home care work in our country, generally we met women with age around 40 without skills to use a computer. 

    Of course, most of the young care workers are familiar with new technologies. ICT skills are less common among carers with age over 50 years. Even if their number is small, there are a few care workers that are using new technologies in their care work: using the Internet to search care techniques for elderly, ordering everyday tasks using programs such as Word or Excel.