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Franta

General information
Información General
Informations générales
Informazioni generali
Vispārīgā infromācija
Informații generale
Education and work of social carers
Educación y trabajo de cuidadores/as sociales
Formation et conditions de travail des ADV
Formazione e condizioni di lavoro delle assistenti familiari
Aprūpētāju izglītība un darbs
Educația și munca îngrijitorilor la domiciliu
Cuidados de larga duración y situación de los/as trabajadores/as sociales
L'accompagement de longue durée et les ADV
Assistenti familiari e assistenza domiciliare
Ilglaicīgā aprūpe un sociālo darbinieku situācija
Îngrijirea pe termen lung și îngrijitorii la domiciliu
Long-term care and social workers
Social protection system of elderly people in general
Sistema de protección social para las personas mayores en general
Système de protection sociale pour les personnes agées
Il sistema dell'assistenza socio-sanitaria alla popolazione anziana
Vecu cilvēku sociālās aizsardzības sistēma
Sistemul de protecție socială a persoanelor în vârstă, în general
Computer and Internet skills of the general population
Competencias informáticas y de internet de la población general
Maîtrise de l'informatique et d'Internet de la population dans son ensemble
Competenze informatiche e digitali
Vispārējās iedzīvotāju datoru un interneta prasmes
Competențele legate de utilizarea calculatorului și a internetului ale populației în general
  • General information

    Country

     

    France

    Total population

    2012

    63 409 191

    Proportion of population

     

     

    Aged 65-79 years

    2001

    12.1%

     

    2012

    11.6%

    Aged 80 years and more

    2001

    3.8%

     

    2012

    5.5%

    Old-age dependency ratio

    1990

    n/a

     

    2001

    24.5

     

    2012

    26.6

    Old-age dependency ratio projections

    2020

    32.71

     

    2030

    39.06

    Life expectancy at birth, years

    2011

     

    Males

     

    78.7

    Females

     

    85.7

    Life expectancy at age 65, years

    2011

     

    Males

     

    19.3

    Females

     

    23.8

    Healthy life years expectancy at birth

    2011

     

    Males

     

    62.7

    Females

     

    63.6

    Duration of working life, years

    2011

     

    Males

     

    36.1

    Females

     

    32.3

    Employment rate of older workers aged 55 to 64, total

     

    41.5%

     

  • Education and work of social carers

    Country

    France

    The overall management and organising of the education of social workers in the country is the responsibility of

    In France, people can access teaching and training during all their life. This can be divided into initial training (in school for pupils and students) and vocational education and training (during their professional life).

    The state, regions and social partners (among them IPERIA) work together to elaborate this professional training policy.

    Financing of the education of social workers

    The state financing is at moderate level, the financing by regional authorities and by private charity sources is at low level. The education of carers is paid by employers. They pay taxes that are collected by an accredited fund-collecting agency (OPCA). This agency then takes responsibility for paying vocational training to carers. In case the carer is unemployed, his/her training may be paid by the state via the ‘Pôle emploi’ (French employment agency).

    The rights to acquire education of social workers in the country

    The person should not be younger than 17 years. Foreign residents should have a valid residence permit. These limitations are for VET. There is not limit for initial education at high-school level.

    The organisation of the further education of social workers in the country is the responsibility of

    There is no higher education diploma designed for carers. Of course, students can follow social studies at university and then choose to be a carer, but this is usually not the pathway chosen.

    Financing of further education of social workers

    Further education does not exist as such. It is rather VET.

    Amount of students of social worker education in the country

    The number of students in the first level higher education (college) institutions and short time courses is not sufficient. Other kinds of students do not exist. Due to the acceleration of population ageing, the need for qualified carers is increasing. This is an employment sector where demand is potentially high. But there are not enough students to meet this demand.

     

    Overall management and implementation of European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing (EIPAHA) in the country is the responsibility of

     

    No information

    The main resources of financing of European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing

    No information

    The required background of the social workers in the country

    The followers of short time professional courses and the students of social worker programs can freely work as social workers. Social workers with only secondary or elementary education can work under control. To become a carer, someone usually has to have a diploma or to be trained (vocational training) and then certified. However, someone can also be certified validating prior professional experience. There is no education requirement in this case, only a certification requirement.

    The requirements to the professions of social worker concerning the level of ICT skills

    The ICT skills are preferred but not required.

    The standards of the profession of social worker (social carer) in the country

    Since 2002, the National Register of Professional Certification establishes precisely the perimeter of activities of a job. Its objective is to provide individuals and companies with up-to-date information on degrees, vocational qualifications and on certificates that appear in the lists drawn up by the national joint committees for employment for the professional sectors. It contributes to improving access to employment, managing human resources and vocational mobility. The qualifications listed in the register are recognised across the whole country. The national register only lists true qualifications. In 2009, IPERIA submitted a certification which was accepted. Since then an ‘Assistant de vie’ (carer) is someone who has certified competences and performs certain tasks which are clearly stated (meal preparation, chores, help to administrative tasks; no health care).

    System of carers activities in the country

    Responsible for promoting the development and quality of the sector for personal care services, the French National Agency for Personal Care Services (Agence nationale des services à la personne) is a public administrative body created by the Decree of 14 October 2005, in accordance with the Law of 26 July 2005. It comes under the supervision of the Ministry for Labour, Employment and Social dialogue and the Ministry for Craft, Commerce and Tourism. It serves as a unique entry point for all stakeholders in the sector and enables a smooth administrative process benefiting the development of personal services.

    Home care for older people is provided by three different types of care workers:

    ·    carers directly employed by family employers,

    ·    carers employed by organisations providing personal care services,

    ·    carers working in private care homes.

    A different national collective agreement defines the employment framework for each one of these categories. Also, the Decree of 22 October 2005 relating to the training leading to the national diploma and the Decree of 8 February 2007 amending it, define the intervention framework for care workers.

    Individual rights to carer’s VET in the country

    In France a carer is automatically credited with 40 hours of training when he/she starts working.Then, each employee gets credited with « Droit individuel à la formation » (individual right to VET). 20 hours a year can be credited, which can be cumulated during 6 years with a limit of 120 hours. The individual right to VET is used at the employee’s initiative. It requires the employer’s agreement though. These credits are financed by an accredited fund-collecting agency which has previously collected money from employers.

    Legal framework of carer education in the country

    The Decree of 22 October 2005 relating to the training leading to the national diploma and the Decree of 8 February 2007 amending it, define the intervention framework for care workers. Also, the collective agreement on people working for family employers defines the employment framework for people working for family employers.

    The national collective agreement on the assistance, support, care and domiciliary care sectors defines the framework for those working for organisations providing personal services. The national collective agreement on private hospital care defines the employment framework for those working in private care homes.

    Opportunities for carer’s VET in the country

    IPERIA produces a catalogue listing training modules for carers. Those are widely disseminated. Carers can then choose to get trained in one of the 232 (in 2013) IPERIA accredited training centres.

    Certification system of carers in the country

    Since 2002, the National Register of Professional Certification establishes precisely the perimeter of activities of a job. Its objective is to provide individuals and companies with up-to-date information on degrees, vocational qualifications and on certificates that appear in the lists drawn up by the national joint committees for employment for the professional sectors. It contributes to improving access to employment, managing human resources and vocational mobility. The qualifications listed in the register are recognised across the whole country. The national register only lists true qualifications. In 2009, IPERIA submitted a certification which was accepted. To get certified as an ‘assistant de vie’, you have to get trained by an IPERIA certified training centre (521 hours of training) or to have your professional experience validated. In both cases, you defend your project in front of an IPERIA jury.

    System of validation of prior experience in the country

    Someone who has worked at least three years during the last five years can set up a professional certification file and defend it in front of a jury. This jury may valid all or part of the certification depending on the candidate’s competences. Where required, it will define the missing modules the candidate can follow to get certified.

    Evaluation of the situation in the labour market of carers in the country

    Needs for qualified and experienced carers are important. Nevertheless, the number of persons actually employed remains limited. This is a consequence of the low solvency of employers in the sector. Older people rely on pensions that are low and quite often cannot pay for a carer. The difficulty to find funds to finance a carer holds back employment. This phenomenon is aggravated by the current crisis.

     

    Evaluation of the participation of the country in the European collaboration in the field of care on the old age people

     

    This collaboration could be much higher. Particularities of the French system (labour, legal framework, training financed by employers etc.) make it difficult to replicate elsewhere. As a consequence, even if France is seen as a model to follow by many of its European counterparts, its collaboration at European level remains low.

    General description of the professional status of the carers in the country

    0.5 million people work in the homes of older people

    98% are women

    37%> 50 years

    Average age: 47 years

    Qualification level

    ·    62.1% have no qualification

    ·    21.2% have DEAVS or equivalent qualification

    ·    7.8% have the diploma of occupational studies in health and social careers

    ·    care worker 33.2%

    ·    1.4% have the diploma of occupational studies in agriculture and personal services

    Employment:

    ·           16.9% of workers are employed directly,

    ·           37% of workers are employed by a company,

    ·           32.3% of workers are employed by an association.

    Description of the place of work of the carers in the country

    Home care for older people is provided by three different types of care workers:

    ·    carers directly employed by family employers. These carers’ workplace is their employer’s home.

    ·    carers employed by organisations providing personal care services,

    ·    carers working in private care homes.

    The jobs in the field of domiciliary care and support services for older people in France are the following:

    ·    those working for family employers (direct employment, paid family care worker),

    ·    those working for associations that provide services,

    ·    those working for personal services companies,

    ·    voluntary family caregiver,

    ·    care worker for a public or private organisation (which comes under domiciliary care services, but a part of the work overlaps with domiciliary care and support services).

    Requirements to the personality of the candidates for carer (moral stability, physical condition, addiction to nicotine, etc.)

    No specific requirement.

     

    Requirements to an immigrant as a candidate for carers job

    No requirements, nothing more nor less than any other carer. Only a work permit is required.

    Work regulations of carers in the country

    ·    Working hours The conventional length of work for a full-time care is 40 hours weekly. Salary for overtime is increased by 25% under 8 extra-hours and by 50% over 8 extra-hours.

    ·    Rest period and rest breaks: A day-off a week must appear in the work contract, preferably on Sunday.

    ·    Night working: Night working is compatible with day working. A carer may have to sleep at the employer’s house, without effectively working. However, the carer has to intervene in case of necessity. No more than 5 consecutive night scan be asked from the carer.

    ·    Holidays: Paid leave corresponds to 2,5  working days a month.

    ·    Sick leave, maternity leave: Carers benefit the same sick leave or martenity rights as other workers as stated in the ‘Code du travail‘ (Employment Law).

    ·    Unemployment benefits: Carers benefit the same unemployment benefits as other workers as stated in the ‘Code du travail‘ (Employment Law).

    Main principles of payment system of carers

    In reference to the remuneration of care workers, the minimum salary is fixed by the salary table in the collective agreement, where it is stated that this minimum salary must never be lower than the minimum wage. Family employers benefit from tax advantages and an exemption from social contributions.

    Family employers also receive: universal service employment vouchers (chèque emploi-service universel - CESU), a personal autonomy allowance (allocation personnalisée d'autonomie - APA).

    Other benefits of carers additional to the salary (telephone, covered transportation expenses, any discounts, etc.)

    No other benefit.

     

    The motivation for job of carer

    This motivation is investigated (FEPEM). For a vast majority of carers (88% of them), they have worked in a different position, without link to the care sector, before. Proof has been found that many people become carer as a consequence of the loss of their job or of a difficulty to stabilise their professional career. Helping other people is not a job that carers choose at the beginning of their professional life. In these conditions, three different motivations stand out, roughly with the same percentage:

    ·                appeal for relations with others, for the job;

    ·                need for money;

    ·                rather by chance, out of opportunity.

    Average duration of work in the position of a carer?

    The conclusion of a FEPEM study: Despite the late arrival in the caring activity and the hardness associated to the job, carers do not want to do another job in the coming years (80%). 75% of them think about remaining a carer until retirement. Notably, a vast majority of carers wish to evolve in their job and to receive training.

     

  • Long-term care and the situation of social workers

    Country

    France

    The responsible body for overall management of social worker activities in the country

    Responsible for promoting the development and quality of the sector for personal services, the national agency for personal services is a public administrative body created by the Decree of 14 October 2005, in accordance with the Law of 26 July 2005.Today, it comes under the supervision of the Ministry for Labour, Employment, Vocational Training and Social Dialogue and the state Secretariat for Commerce, Craft, SMEs, Tourism, Services, Self-Employed Professions and Consumer Affairs.

    The agency serves to:

    ·    allow the actors within the sector to identify an actor with a unique reference;

    ·    enable the administrative process to function smoothly and in an ever more effective way, thus benefiting the development of personal services.

    Long-term care

    Basic principles

    Supplement for assistance of a third party (majoration pour aide d'une tierce personne). Supplement of the invalidity pension (pension d'invalidité), old-age pension (pension de vieillesse) or work injury pension (rente accident du travail), financed by contributions.

    Universal family benefit, financed by contributions and a part of the generalised social contribution (contribution sociale généralisée, CSG). Disability compensation allowance (prestation de compensation du handicap) and Allowance for loss of autonomy (allocation personnalisée d'autonomie).

    Universal assistance aimed at financing the needs associated with loss of autonomy for disabled or elderly persons.

    Financing: autonomy contribution (contribution solidarité autonomie), part of the CSG, contributions of pension and sickness insurance funds.

    Long-term care

    Field of application

    Supplement for assistance of a third party (majoration pour aide d'une tierce personne):

    - beneficiaries of invalidity pension (pension   d'invalidité), old-age pension (pension de vieillesse) (subject to certain conditions) or of work injury pension (rente accident du travail).

    Disability compensation allowance (prestation de compensation du handicap):

    - disabled persons residing in France and whose disability meets defined criteria.

    Allowance for loss of autonomy (allocation personnalisée d'autonomie):

    - elderly persons residing in France suffering from loss of autonomy.

    Organisation of Long-term care

    Informal caregivers and professional providers

    Professional providers:

    - supplement for assistance of a third party (majoration pour aide d'une tierce personne),

    - disability compensation allowance (prestation de compensation du handicap),

    - allowance for loss of autonomy (allocation personnalisée d'autonomie)

    - direct and indirect jobs: the sums allocated can also be used to remunerate authorised home care providers.

    Informal caregivers:

    - Supplement for assistance of a third party,

    - Special education supplement for a disabled child and Disability compensation allowance: the sums allocated can be used to remunerate the spouse, cohabitant or person with whom the beneficiary has concluded a civil solidarity pact (pacte civil de solidarité, PACS).

    - allowance for loss of autonomy,

    - possibility to employ one or more family members with the exception of the spouse, the cohabitant or the person with whom the beneficiary has concluded a PACS.

    Long-term care

    Benefits for the carer

    The employed carer is entitled to benefits on the same basis as other employees.

    The beneficiary of the allowance can make use of home services offered by specialised organisations (services organised by the municipality, by state-authorised associations or by undertakings).

    S/he can also opt to remunerate these organisations by using a universal service employment cheque (chèque emploi service universel, CESU). The beneficiary can choose to be employer him-/herself, either directly or by proxy.

    Long-term care

    User charges

    The amounts and tariffs of the elements of the disability compensation allowance (prestation de compensation du handicap) and the allowance for loss of autonomy (allocation personnalisée d'autonomie) are set according to the type of expenditure. Their amounts vary depending on the means of the disabled or elderly person.

     

  • Social protection system for the older people in general

    Country

    France

    GDP at market prices Purchasing Power Standard per inhabitant, 2011

    27 200

    Pension expenditure,  % of GDP, 2010

    13.5%

    Expenditure on care for elderly, % of GDP, 2008

    0.4%

    At-risk-of-poverty rate, age group 65 years or over, 2011

    9.7%

    Old-age pensions

    Basic principles

    Compulsory basic and complementary social insurance schemes financed by contributions providing earnings-related pensions depending on contributions and the duration of affiliation.

    Old-age pensions

    Legal retirement age in standard case

    General scheme for employees (Régime général d'assurance vieillesse des travailleurs salariés, RGAVTS):

    ·    if minimum period of affiliation completed: 60 for persons born before 1 July 1951. The retirement age increases by five months per birth year to reach 62 for persons born in 1955 or later.

    ·    if minimum period of affiliation not completed: 65 for persons born before 1 July 1951. Gradual increase per birth year to reach 67 for persons born in 1955 or later.

    Complementary schemes for employees (ARRCO) and management staff (AGIRC): Between 65 and 67 or upon receipt of the basic pension at a full rate.

    Financing principles for old-age pensions

    Contributions (employees and employers), special contributions and public authorities’ participation.

    Benefits for older unemployed

    Early retirement Allowance (Allocation spéciale FNE) from the National Employment Fund (Fonds national de l'emploi): aimed at guaranteeing older employees who were made redundant a replacement income up to the retirement age. Scheme closed since 10 October 2011.

    Transitional solidarity allowance (allocation transitoire de solidarité, ATS): aimed at alleviating the measures concerning the increase in retirement age for those involuntarily unemployed persons who satisfy the conditions for obtaining full old-age pension but who did not yet reach the retirement age. The ATS replaces the Retirement-equivalent benefit (Allocation équivalent retraite, AER) for the period between 1 July 2011 and 31 December 2014.

    Financing systems for long-term benefits

    Case of  old-age benefits

    Current income financing (‘pay as you go’).
     

    Health care

    Basic principles

    Compulsory social insurance scheme with affiliation based firstly on professional criteria and secondly on residency, and financed by social security contributions and special contributions. 

    Health care

    Benefits for prosthesis, spectacles, hearing-aids

    General scheme for employees (Régime général d'assurance maladie des travailleurs salariés, RGAMTS):
    Reimbursement at 60% of set fees, which may vary according to age and disability. For major fittings, reimbursement at 100% of set fees after prior approval of the sickness fund.

     

  • Computer and Internet skills of the general population

    Country

     

    France

    Use of computers

     

     

    Enforced lack of a computer

    2011

     

    One adult 65 years or over. Cannot afford

     

    5.3%

    E-skills

    2012

     

    Individuals who have copied or moved a file or folder

     

    70.0%

    Individuals who have used copy or cut and paste tools to duplicate or move information on screen

     

    71.0%

    Individuals who have compressed files

     

    42.0%

    Way of obtaining e-skills

    2011

     

    Individuals who have obtained IT skills through self-study (learning by doing)

     

    66.0%

    Reasons for not having taken a computer course

    2011

     

    Individuals who do not need to take a computer course because their computer skills are sufficient

     

    40.0%

    Individuals who do not need to take a computer course because they rarely use computers

     

    11.0%

    Use of Internet

     

     

    Frequency of Internet access:

    2012

     

    Once a week (including every day)

     

    78.0%

    Daily

     

    65.0%

    Internet used for

    2012

     

    Internet banking

     

    54.0%

    Interaction with public authorities (last 12 months)

     

    61.0%

    Mobile Internet access with portable computer

     

     

    Every day or almost every day 2012

     

    13.0%

    Individuals' level of Internet skills

    2011

     

    Individuals who have used a search engine to find information

     

    77.0%

    Individuals who have sent an email with attached files

     

    69.0%

    Individuals who have posted messages to chat rooms, newsgroups or an online discussion forum

     

    32.0%

    Individuals who have used the Internet to make phone calls

     

    35.0%

    Individuals using the Internet for seeking health-related information

     

    36.0%

    Concern about possible problems related to Internet usage

    2010

     

    Strongly concerned about catching a virus or other computer infection (e.g. worm or Trojan horse) resulting in loss of information or time

     

    31.0%

    Mildly concerned about catching a virus or other computer infection (e.g. worm or Trojan horse) resulting in loss of information or time

     

    29.0%

    Not at all concerned about catching a virus or other computer infection (e.g. worm or Trojan horse) resulting in loss of information or time

     

    17.0%

    Security related problems experienced through using the Internet for private purposes in the last 12 months.

    2010

     

    Caught a virus or other computer infection (e.g. worm or Trojan horse) resulting in loss of information or time

     

    27.0%

    Financial loss as a result of receiving fraudulent messages ('phishing') or getting redirected to fake websites asking for personal information ('pharming')

     

    0.0%

    Activities via Internet not done because of security concerns

    2010

     

    Security concerns kept individual from ordering or buying goods or services for private use

     

    23.0%

    Security concerns kept individual from communicating with public services and administrations

     

    7.0%

    Use and update of IT security software or tool to protect the private computer and data

    2010

     

    Use any kind of IT security software or tool (anti-virus, anti-spam,firewall, etc.) in order to protect private computer and data

     

    69.0%

    Don't use any kind of IT security software or tool (anti-virus, anti-spam, firewall, etc.) in order to protect private computer and data

     

    5.0%

    Don't know if use any kind of IT security software or tool (anti-virus, anti-spam, firewall, etc.) in order to protect private computer and data

     

    1.0%

    Frequency of safety copies or back up files from the computer on any external storage device

    2010

     

    Frequency of safety copies/back up files: always or almost always

     

    21.0%

    Frequency of safety copies/back up files: Never or hardly ever

     

    23.0%

     

    Evaluation of the computer and internet skills of the carers in the country

     

    Generally low