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General information
Información General
Informations générales
Informazioni generali
Vispārīgā infromācija
Informații generale
Education and work of social carers
Educación y trabajo de cuidadores/as sociales
Formation et conditions de travail des ADV
Formazione e condizioni di lavoro delle assistenti familiari
Aprūpētāju izglītība un darbs
Educația și munca îngrijitorilor la domiciliu
Cuidados de larga duración y situación de los/as trabajadores/as sociales
L'accompagement de longue durée et les ADV
Assistenti familiari e assistenza domiciliare
Ilglaicīgā aprūpe un sociālo darbinieku situācija
Îngrijirea pe termen lung și îngrijitorii la domiciliu
Long-term care and social workers
Social protection system of elderly people in general
Sistema de protección social para las personas mayores en general
Système de protection sociale pour les personnes agées
Il sistema dell'assistenza socio-sanitaria alla popolazione anziana
Vecu cilvēku sociālās aizsardzības sistēma
Sistemul de protecție socială a persoanelor în vârstă, în general
Computer and Internet skills of the general population
Competencias informáticas y de internet de la población general
Maîtrise de l'informatique et d'Internet de la population dans son ensemble
Competenze informatiche e digitali
Vispārējās iedzīvotāju datoru un interneta prasmes
Competențele legate de utilizarea calculatorului și a internetului ale populației în general
  • General information

    Country

     

    Hungary

    Total population

    2012

    9 957 731

    Proportion of population

     

     

    Aged 65-79 years

    2001

    12.4%

     

    2012

    12.7%

    Aged 80 years and more

    2001

    2.7%

     

    2012

    4.2%

    Old-age dependency ratio

    1990

    20

     

    2001

    22.2

     

    2012

    24.6

    Old-age dependency ratio projections

    2020

    29.98

     

    2030

    33.57

    Life expectancy at birth, years

    2011

     

    Males

     

    71.2

    Females

     

    78.7

    Life expectancy at age 65, years

    2011

     

    Males

     

    14.3

    Females

     

    18.3

    Healthy life years expectancy at birth

    2011

     

    Males

     

    57.6

    Females

     

    59.1

    Duration of working life, years

    2011

     

    Males

     

    31.8

    Females

     

    27.4

    Employment rate of older workers aged 55 to 64, total

     

    35.8%

     

  • Education and work of social carers

    Country

    Hungary

    The overall management and organising of the education of social workers in the country is the responsibility of

    The Ministry of National Resources integrates the fields of (1) social, (2) labour, (3) health, (4) culture, (5) education, (6) sport, (7) civil society and churches. For this reason, the education of social workers belongs to the same central public administration body/ministry.

    However, there are more background institutions belonging to the ministry and support its tasks operatively, as:

    National Labour Office Vocational and Adult Education Directorate (responsible for adult education trainings in general, including those specified trainings that home carers need to attend)

    National Family and Social Policy Institute (responsible for the mandatory advanced training system for the social practitioners)

    The Education Departure of the Ministry (responsible for the higher education including the BA and MA trainings for social workers)

    Financing of the education of social workers

    1. Higher education courses. Attending a higher education training related to social work is mostly an individual decision, with individual financial consequences. In case the individual is a practitioner already and the training is important to keep his/her workplace, the employer may contribute to the training costs to some extent. However, because of the economic circumstances, less and less employers can afford this. So, individuals need to finance it for themselves.
    2. VET/ADULT education courses. The situation of the VET/Adult education trainings a bit different since unemployed people can attend these courses with the support of the Regional Labour Offices, without paying any contribution. State funding has a crucial role, as well as the EU Structural Funds, that can flow via the Labour Offices or they are available for the different economic actors (for-profit or non-profit organisations, training organisations, social institutions etc.) through project support. In these cases, participants are not required to pay any fee what is more, in many cases they are supported with additional allowances (e.g. travel expenses in case they need to travel to the training location).
    3. Mandatory advanced courses. The third, very important educational system concerns the practitioners throughout the whole range of the social services. (This system followed the existing mandatory training models in the health care and education sector in Hungary).

    The rights to acquire education of social workers in the country

    Need to meet the minimum training criteria which are detailed for every social worker position/function in 1/2000. (I. 7.) SzCsM Decree on the role and operational criteria of social institutions providing personal care. The 1/2000 SzCsM Decree is the implementing regulation of the Act on social administration and social provision (1993.III). It lists each types of social services mentioned in the Social Act and regulates the criteria (training background) to each relevant position can be identified related to the service.

    The organisation of the further education of social workers in the country is the responsibility of

    National Family and Social Policy Institute (responsible for the mandatory advanced training system for the social practitioners). This is a background institution for the Ministry of National Resources.

    For the organisation of the participation of single social practitioners, social services providers are the responsible actors (regardless to which sector – local government, NGO, church, for-profit – they belong to). Social service provider organisations need to prepare a ‘Training Plan’ for every year, in which they details how many of their social employees will take part on mandatory trainings, how they will finance it and how they will maintain substitution and other related issues. Social provider organisations must to serve data on the results in every year to the National Family and Social Policy Institute that will credit the points collected by each practitioner.

    Financing of further education of social workers

    Though home carers have to participate in mandatory trainings regularly as well, they usually cannot choose them for themselves and according to their own personal needs or interest. It is usually the leadership that makes a decision on trainings.

    This may have two reasons. Formal social institutions operate in a strong hierarchy, both inside and outside. Inside hierarchy means that most of the decisions are made by the leaders and directors. Outside hierarchy refers to the regular reporting obligations to higher level public administration bodies and strict formal regulation in general.

    However, the other reason is the strict financial limits that social institutions have to face. Though, institutions get a quota per capita from the central budget in order to train their employees, its amount has decreased seriously in the last decade. Leaders have to send their employees to obligated professional trainings for three reasons. First, these training programs can complete partially the lacking professional competences of not qualified staff members. Second, professionals can follow up with the development of their service field and usually they can take part in some supervision groups this way, too. Third, in case a professional did not collected the required amount of points through different trainings in every five years, they are not allowed to practice their profession theoretically.

    Hence, on one hand, leaders have to fulfill these formal expectations for many interests. On the other hand, they have a strict budget which urges them to choose trainings with a low price. In addition, social institutions have to organize substitution while some colleagues are far because of the trainings, which is a significant question as the number of domestic nurses declined in the last decade.

    Amount of students of social worker education in the country

    There is no exact report about the number of social practitioners, since an exact definition for social practitioners does not exist in Hungary (for example, it is not decided whether public servants working in local and central public social administration are deemed as social practitioners).

    The national census in every 10 years (2011) informs that by the estimations, there are over 80,000 social practitioners in Hungary.

    In 2011, 11975 domestic nurses worked in domiciliary care services for older people. Their number is little bit less now than at the start up of the service around 1993-1995, and it was quite waving during the 1990s and after 2000. The opposite trends of the proportion of full-time professionals and nurses receiving fee refers to a strong formalization and institutionalisation process. Nowadays, nurses receiving fee have a complementary role, especially in small villages. 

    Overall management and implementation of European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing (EIPAHA) in the country is the responsibility of

    Ministry of National Resources

    The main resources of financing of European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing

    The important sources of financing are state financing, EU funding anf family own resources. Low level of support is observed from municipalities and private charity.

    The required background of the social workers in the country

    Persons with elementary education only and students of social worker programs are not accepted as social workers. The persons with secondary education only and leavers of short time courses are accepted but will be paid low. Short time professional courses: only adult education courses (1,600-2,000 hours) are acceptable.

    The requirements to the professions of social worker concerning the level of ICT skills

    The ICT skills are not considered important except for the case of those home care services in which an alarm system has been used, when knowledge of remote health monitoring is important.

    The standards of the profession of social worker (social carer) in the country

    Standards are listed in the 1/2000. (I. 7.) SzCsM Decree on the role and operational criteria of social institutions providing personal care. In addition, a non-profit umbrella organisation called 3SZ (Social Professional Alliance – Szociális Szakmai Szövetség, www.3sz.hu) worked out overall professional standards (quality of work, work ethics) for social carers. Each organisation that joined the 3SZ is required to follow these professional standards.

    System of carers activities in the country

    In Hungary, domestic care for older people is defined by the Act on Social Administration and Social Services (1993.III. 63 §), which regulates social benefits in cash and in kind as well as basic and institutional social services. Domestic care for older people is a basic social service in Hungary that has to be available in every settlement.

    In frame of domestic care, carers need to provide services that maintain independent living for older people in their own home environment.

    These services are:

    ·    basic caring and nursing activities,

    ·    maintain/contribute to hygienic circumstances

    ·    to prevent emergency situations or fending off them

    ·    to map individual caring needs and their rates

    ·    to provide care in maximum 4 hours per day

    Individual rights to carer’s VET in the country

    N/A

    Legal framework of carer education in the country

    Law on Higher Education (2011.CCIV)

    Law on Adult Education (2001.CI)

    Law on Vocational Education (2011.CLXXXVII)

    Opportunities for carer’s VET in the country

    Higher education trainings:

    Social Worker – BA training: 7 semesters (can be completed with an MA degree, 4 semesters)

    Social Educator – BA training: 7 semesters

    Adult education trainings:

    Social assistant (since 2006): based on secondary school, 2000 hours, 2 years

    Social nurse (since 2001): based on primary school, 2000 hours, 2 years

    Social assistant and nurse (since 2001): no educational entrance criteria, 2000 hours, 2 years

    Social assistant and manager (since 2006): based on secondary school, 2000 hours, 2 years

    Social carer (since 2006)

    Professional social carer (since 2006):

    Social, child care and youth carer (since 2006): based on secondary school, 2000 hours, 2 years

    Certification system of carers in the country

    The Adult Education Accreditation Committee is responsible for the certification and control of higher and adult education trainings.

    System of validation of prior experience in the country

    Adult and higher education trainings need a quality assurance regulation which is prepared and had to be provided by the training/education organisation. The quality assurance handbook has to detail all the training processes and ensure a quality management. Validation of prior experience is regulated here and training organisations design these procedures (e.g. by using tests, requesting copies of diplomas etc.).

    Evaluation of the situation in the labour market of carers in the country

    Carers are usually underpaid (the average wage of the carers was between 300-363 EUR in 2009), with low lobby capacity on both organisational or sector level, the prestige of the profession is also low. Career or mobility possibilities are restricted.

    Evaluation of the participation of the country in the European collaboration in the field of care on the old age people

    N/A

    General description of the professional status of the carers in the country

    The number of care recipients has been slightly increasing since 2005 and more drastically after 2008. (Hungarian Central Statistical Office, 2011) Women are over-represented as domestic care receivers; their number is two and a half times more than of men, in addition, their dominance has been more spectacular since 2005. The total number of recipients almost doubled in the last fifteen years.

    The proportion of care receivers has been raised within the 60+ population, too, while the number of those ones who are able to pay a cost contribution for the service has declined seriously. That refers to the deteriorating social and economic situation of older people in Hungary.

    While there is a ‘catching up‘ with the number of nurses on the supply side in the last decade, the demand seems continuously increase. In 1995, 3.6 care recipients fell to one nurse on an average (with 12448 nurses in total) while it was 7.3 (with almost the same number - 11975 - of nurses) in 2011. This trend obviously puts a high pressure on the service level as well as on nurses.

    Description of the place of work of the carers in the country

    While a mixed welfare model has developed in service delivery, social service provision still remained state-dominated with local-self governments and their different types of local co-operations in centre. Though local governments has have the right to collaborate to perform different tasks since the transition, their co-operation to provide public services strengthened after 2004, when they got concrete incentives by the central government. The amendment of the Act on Regional Development and Spatial Planning (1996. XXI.) called local governments to establish multipurpose subregion associations to provide some basic public health, social, cultural and educational services. Public services delivered by subregion associations were supported by extra quotas from the central budget which was a persuasive incentive for single local governments to collaborate. This change benefitted not only the bigger cities and towns where central administrative bodies of subregion associations were settled, but the smaller local governments, too, which were obviously struggling with the provision of many of public services. The population – particularly of small settlements – was also advantaged, since several specific services became available for them due to this re-concentration process.

     

    The share of local governments, as providers was 60 percentages of total number of care recipients in 2001. Churches had another 30 % and nonprofits 8 %. While nonprofits had a bigger role in social service provision during the Nineties in the name of decentralization and subsidiarity, some churches came up in the last two years due to the conservative government after 2010. Decentralization – which meant the principle of “one settlement – one local government in public administration and the responsibility of single local governments in service provision – seemed to be replaced first by a re-concentration in 2004 and then by a centralization recently. The ‘back to the state‘ principle will probably allow less space for non-governmental actors in social service delivery in the future.

    Requirements to the personality of the candidates for carer (moral stability, physical condition, addiction to nicotine, etc.)

    Carers need to take an inspection in every year.

    Some health/emotional factors that can be excluding factors:

    ·    severe psychical disability

    ·    severe mental disability

    ·    someone who is declared as not able to take a job needing normal hearing,

    ·    someone who is declared as not able to take a job needing cooperation,

    ·    someone who is declared as not able to take a job having an emotional stress/strain.

    Some health/emotional factors that can be restricting factors:

    ·    someone who is declared as not able to take a job requiring good communication skills,

    ·    someone who is is declared as not able to take a job requiring manual movement of objects (where fingers, hands and arms needed to be used intensively),

    ·    someone who is declared as not able to take a job with changing places of work and/or needing travelling.

    Requirements to an immigrant as a candidate for carers job

    Migrants are not significant/typical as carers in formal caring in Hungary.

    Work regulations of carers in the country

    ·    Working hours: 8 or part time work

    ·    Rest period and rest breaks: N/A

    ·    Night working: not mandatory, based on the job contract

    ·    Holidays: following the Law on the legal status of public servants or the Labor Code

    ·    Sick leave, maternity leave: following the Law on the legal status of public servants or the Labor Code

    ·    Unemployment benefits: following the Labor Code

    Main principles of payment system of carers

    Carers working in formal public/state institutions are deemed as public servants. In this case, the wage levels and rates are established by following the official wage rates (based on the educational level and years spent in the public sector).

    Cafeteria (meal-tickets, transport expenses etc.) can be also given to these carers.

    Carers working for non-governmental organisations are paid by the Labor Code; salary cannot be less than the minimum salary established by the Government.

    Other benefits of carers additional to the salary (telephone, covered transportation expenses, any discounts, etc.)

    Carers usually use a mobile phone provided by the service provider organisation.

    Covered transportation expenses or other cafeteria can be provided but it depends on the local governments as main service providers.

    The motivation for job of carer

    The National Employment service (ÁFSZ) established a ‘course information folder’ for home carers, which is used for the pupils finishing secondary schools and the unemployed for a career change.

    The most frequent motivation is to help the (older) people and improve the quality of their life.

    Average duration of work in the position of a carer?

    N/A

     

  • Long-term care and the situation of social workers

    Country

    Hungary

    The responsible body for overall management of social worker activities in the country

    Ministry of Health and Welfare

    Long-term care

    Basic principles

    There is no separate long-term care system; the long-term care services are supplied within the healthcare and social service system.
    Professional policies (and basic principles) pertaining to long-term care are shaped by the Ministry of National Resources (Nemzeti Erőforrás Minisztérium).

    In case of long-term care services, personal social care (social services) is provided according to the Social Act by the state and local governments. The local governments are responsible for organising the services.

    (Besides local governments NGOs and Churches can also provide services, but only the local government has an obligation to provide these services).

    Long-term care services are based on social assistance and financed by the state budget. Both cash benefits and benefits in kind are provided.

    Long-term care

    Field of application

    ·    Elderly persons

    ·    People with disabilities

    ·    Psychiatric patients

    ·    Persons with addictions

    ·    Homeless persons

    Organisation of Long-term care

    Informal caregivers and professional providers

    There are many informal caregivers who are taking care of their family members, friends etc. For their care work they can receive cash benefit (nursing fee) from the state, like nursing fee (Ápolási díj) is payable to persons who provide long-term care to family members who are disabled or under 18 years of age and permanently ill. In the case of persons with severe disabilities, the amount of assistance is 100% of the basic amount (alapösszeg) defined by the Act on the Central Budget (2011. évi CLXXXVIII. törvény Magyarország 2012. évi költségvetéséről), while in the case of persons with severe disabilities in need of intensive care it is 130%.

    Professional providers in case of long-term care services providing personal social care (social services): the state, the local governments, churches and NGOs. They employ mostly professional carers, so care in services is provided by professionals.

    Long-term care

    Benefits for the carer

    Nursing fee (Ápolási díj) is paid to the carer (not to the person in need of care) - the carer has to be a family member.
    In the case of persons with severe disabilities, the amount of assistance is 100% of the basic amount (alapösszeg) defined by the Act on the Central Budget (2011. évi CLXXXVIII. törvény Magyarország 2012. évi költségvetéséről), while in the case of persons with severe disabilities in need of intensive care it is 130%.
    In 2011 the basic amount is HUF29,500 (€103) per month.
    The amount of the cash benefit (nursing fee) does not cover the full costs of the carer; rather it tries to compensate her/him for the lost income.

    According to the Labour Act (Act XXII of 1992 on the Labour Code), those who are taking care of their relatives can take unpaid leave for a maximum duration of 2 years.

    Long-term care

    User charges

    In case of long-term care services providing personal social care (social services):

    - The beneficiaries shall contribute to the costs of services provided (co-payment).

    - The amount of the co-payment (determined individually) must not be higher than a certain percentage of the income (maximum rate of charge differs according to services).

    - The amount shall be paid on a monthly basis. Services are provided free of charge in case the beneficiary does not have an income (besides that, in the case of elderly homes: does not have a property), and does not have any relative who would be responsible and able to fulfil his/her obligation to support and care for the beneficiary.

     

  • Social protection system of the older people in general

    Country

    Hungary

    GDP at market prices. Purchasing Power Standard per inhabitant, 2011

    16 500

    Pension expenditure,  % of GDP, 2010

    11.3%

    Expenditure on care for elderly, % of GDP, 2008

    0.3%

    At-risk-of-poverty rate, age group 65 years or over, 2011

    4.5%

    Old-age pensions

    Basic principles

    Dual system for the active population consisting of (1) the pure pay-as-you-go scheme and (2) a funded pillar:
    1st pillar: compulsory state pension scheme financed by contributions (PAYG) with earnings-related benefits depending on contributions and the duration of affiliation;
    2nd pillar: voluntary fully funded scheme run by private pension funds supervised by the state providing benefits linked to the accrued pension capital. Note: the second pillar, private funds have been closed in two steps in 2011-2012 and all the funds went to the state without any compenstation to the Funds’ members.

    As of 1 January 2012, insured persons pay a 10%-pension contribution to the 1st-pillar Pension Insurance Fund even if they are members of one of the private pension funds.

    Old-age pensions

    Legal retirement age in standard case

    Unisex 62 years of age in 2009.

    Retirement age is gradually increased (by half a year for every age cohort) since 2010, reaching age 65 in 2022 for those born in 1957 and after. The first persons concerned by this increase are those born in 1952.

    Financing principles for old-age pensions

    1st pillar: contributions (insured persons and employers) and taxes.
    2nd pillar: contributions to the private pension funds are terminated for 2012. Members of the private pension funds are also obliged to pay pension contribution to the state-managed pension fund.

    Benefits for older unemployed

    Job-seeker Aid Before Pension (Nyugdíj előtti álláskeresési segély) for older persons.

    Financing systems for long-term benefits

    Case of  old-age benefits

    1st pillar: current income financing (‘pay as you go’)
    2nd pillar: terminated, does not exist anymore

    Health care

    Basic principles

    Compulsory social insurance scheme for the active population (employees and self-employed) and assimilated groups, financed by employer and employee contributions.

    Health care

    Benefits for prosthesis, spectacles, hearing-aids

    The Health Insurance Fund (Egészségbiztosítási Pénztár) subsidies 50%, 70%, 80% 90% or 98% of the price or 50%, 70%, 85% or 100% of the rental fee depending on the type of the prosthetic device in question. 100% coverage for all victims of employment injuries and occupational diseases.

     

  • Computer and Internet skills of the general population

    Country

     

    Hungary

    Use of computers

     

     

    Enforced lack of a computer

    2011

     

    One adult 65 years or over. Cannot afford

     

    12.8%

    E-skills

    2012

     

    Individuals who have copied or moved a file or folder

     

    67.0%

    Individuals who have used copy or cut and paste tools to duplicate or move information on screen

     

    63.0%

    Individuals who have compressed files

     

    41.0%

    Way of obtaining e-skills

    2011

     

    Individuals who have obtained IT skills through self-study (learning by doing)

     

    57.0%

    Reasons for not having taken a computer course

    2011

     

    Individuals who do not need to take a computer course because their computer skills are sufficient

     

    35.0%

    Individuals who do not need to take a computer course because they rarely use computers

     

    10.0%

    Use of Internet

     

     

    Frequency of Internet access:

    2012

     

    Once a week (including every day)

     

    69.0%

    Daily

     

    58.0%

    Internet used for

    2012

     

    Internet banking

     

    26.0%

    Interaction with public authorities (last 12 months)

     

    42.0%

    Mobile Internet access with portable computer

     

     

    Every day or almost every day 2012

     

    6.0%

    Individuals' level of Internet skills

    2011

     

    Individuals who have used a search engine to find information

     

    70.0%

    Individuals who have sent an email with attached files

     

    66.0%

    Individuals who have posted messages to chat rooms, newsgroups or an online discussion forum

     

    39.0%

    Individuals who have used the Internet to make phone calls

     

    26.0%

    Individuals using the Internet for seeking health-related information

     

    48.0%

    Concern about possible problems related to Internet usage

    2010

     

    Strongly concerned about catching a virus or other computer infection (e.g. worm or Trojan horse) resulting in loss of information or time

     

    20.0%

    Mildly concerned about catching a virus or other computer infection (e.g. worm or Trojan horse) resulting in loss of information or time

     

    32.0%

    Not at all concerned about catching a virus or other computer infection (e.g. worm or Trojan horse) resulting in loss of information or time

     

    12.0%

    Security related problems experienced through using the Internet for private purposes in the last 12 months.

    2010

     

    Caught a virus or other computer infection (e.g. worm or Trojan horse) resulting in loss of information or time

     

    30.0%

    Financial loss as a result of receiving fraudulent messages ('phishing') or getting redirected to fake websites asking for personal information ('pharming')

     

    1.0%

    Activities via Internet not done because of security concerns

    2010

     

    Security concerns kept individual from ordering or buying goods or services for private use

     

    8.0%

    Security concerns kept individual from communicating with public services and administrations

     

    4.0%

    Use and update of IT security software or tool to protect the private computer and data

    2010

     

    Use any kind of IT security software or tool (anti-virus, anti-spam,firewall, etc.) in order to protect private computer and data

     

    55.0%

    Don't use any kind of IT security software or tool (anti-virus, anti-spam, firewall, etc.) in order to protect private computer and data

     

    5.0%

    Don't know if use any kind of IT security software or tool (anti-virus, anti-spam, firewall, etc.) in order to protect private computer and data

     

    2.0%

    Frequency of safety copies or back up files from the computer on any external storage device

    2010

     

    Frequency of safety copies/back up files: always or almost always

     

    14.0%

    Frequency of safety copies/back up files: Never or hardly ever

     

    21.0%

    Evaluation of the computer and internet skills of the carers in the country

    ICT skills are not part of the trainings for (home) care workers in Hungary actually. Care workers (home carers) are not in an environment that constraints them to the use of ICT tools. Their private life situations do not really require the use of these tools. Concerning the usage of ICT tools in their professional life, they work in some kind of ’shadowing’, not only in the use of ICT tools but in the whole performance of tasks. Hence, digital literacy and the expectation to use ICT tools stops at the level of the leadership.