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Spania

General information
Información General
Informations générales
Informazioni generali
Vispārīgā infromācija
Informații generale
Education and work of social carers
Educación y trabajo de cuidadores/as sociales
Formation et conditions de travail des ADV
Formazione e condizioni di lavoro delle assistenti familiari
Aprūpētāju izglītība un darbs
Educația și munca îngrijitorilor la domiciliu
Cuidados de larga duración y situación de los/as trabajadores/as sociales
L'accompagement de longue durée et les ADV
Assistenti familiari e assistenza domiciliare
Ilglaicīgā aprūpe un sociālo darbinieku situācija
Îngrijirea pe termen lung și îngrijitorii la domiciliu
Long-term care and social workers
Social protection system of elderly people in general
Sistema de protección social para las personas mayores en general
Système de protection sociale pour les personnes agées
Il sistema dell'assistenza socio-sanitaria alla popolazione anziana
Vecu cilvēku sociālās aizsardzības sistēma
Sistemul de protecție socială a persoanelor în vârstă, în general
Computer and Internet skills of the general population
Competencias informáticas y de internet de la población general
Maîtrise de l'informatique et d'Internet de la population dans son ensemble
Competenze informatiche e digitali
Vispārējās iedzīvotāju datoru un interneta prasmes
Competențele legate de utilizarea calculatorului și a internetului ale populației în general
  • General information

    Country

     

    Spain

    Total population

    2012

    46 196 276

    Proportion of population

     

     

    Aged 65-79 years

    2001

    13.1%

     

    2012

    12.2%

    Aged 80 years and more

    2001

    3.8%

     

    2012

    5.2%

    Old-age dependency ratio

    1990

    20.2

     

    2001

    24.7

     

    2012

    25.8

    Old-age dependency ratio projections

    2020

    28.94

     

    2030

    35.52

    Life expectancy at birth, years

    2011

     

    Males

     

    79.4

    Females

     

    85.4

    Life expectancy at age 65, years

    2011

     

    Males

     

    18.7

    Females

     

    22.8

    Healthy life years expectancy at birth

    2011

     

    Males

     

    65.3

    Females

     

    65.8

    Duration of working life, years

    2011

     

    Males

     

    37.4

    Females

     

    31.5

    Employment rate of older workers aged 55 to 64, total

     

    44.5%

     

  • Education and work of social carers

    Country

    Spain

    The overall management and organising of the education of social workers in the country is the responsibility of

    Regional and provincial governments

    Financing of the education of social workers

    Education in Spain is decentralized and thus financed at the regional level.

    The rights to acquire education of social workers in the country

    No restrictions apply for acquisition of education by care workers.

    The organisation of the further education of social workers in the country is the responsibility of

    Regional and provincial governments

    Financing of further education of social workers

    The Financing of further education in Spain is decentralized and thus financed at the regional level.

    Amount of students of social worker education in the country

    Number of all kinds of students is sufficient.

    Overall management and implementation of European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing (EIPAHA) in the country is the responsibility of

    A number of other Spanish national and regional institutions, governmental departments and Universities participate in EIP-AHA.

    The main resources of financing of European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing

    Finance is decentralized so that the institutions participating finance with their own resources the actions in which they participate.

    The required background of the social workers in the country

    The persons with only elementary education can be accepted at the carer job.

    The requirements to the professions of social worker concerning the level of ICT skills

    There is no requirement for ICT skills in care workers’ professional standards.  

    The standards of the profession of social worker (social carer) in the country

    There exist two care worker professional qualifications: ‘Social and health care of dependent people in social institutions’ and ‘Social and health care at home’. Both are included in the Spanish National Catalogue of Professional Qualifications, under the category of ‘Community and Socio-cultural services’, level 2 (intermediate Professional Qualification).

    System of carers activities in the country

    The activities that care workers carry out are:

    Housework: house cleaning, domestic shopping, cooking, washing.

    Personal care: personal hygiene, mobility support at home, support for taking prescribed medicines.

    Individual rights to carer’s VET in the country

    All carers have the right to receive VET.

    Legal framework of carer education in the country

    The Ministry of Education is the institution that sets up the National Framework for Vocational Qualifications. The Regional Governments are responsible for the regulatory development of the basic national standards and the regulation of the non-basic aspects of the education system, as well as having executive and administrative management authority over the education system in their own regions.

    Opportunities for carer’s VET in the country

    Care workers can access all levels of VET provided they have the relevant educational background. Initial professional qualification programmes (ISCED-3) can be accessed directly from secondary education. A professional qualification on social and health care can be obtained by following the specific training with no need for prior educational background. The training is delivered in the different Spanish regions by accredited VET providers.

    Certification system of carers in the country

    There exist two care worker professional qualifications: ‘Social and health care of dependent people in social institutions’ and ‘Social and health care at home’. Both are included in the Spanish National Catalogue of Professional Qualifications, under the category of ‘Community and Socio-cultural services’, level 2 (intermediate Professional Qualification). Other related qualifications are Domestic Work (level 1) and Geriatric Assistant Nurse (level 3), the latter pending validation for its inclusion in the National Catalogue. There also exists an intermediate Vocational Training level (ISCED-3) on ‘Care of Dependents’.

    System of validation of prior experience in the country

    Evaluation and accreditation of professional competences is conducted by the Ministeries of Work and Education, having the Spanish National Catalogue of Professional Qualifications as a reference. For all competence units but level 1, prior experience can be validated provided the person can prove a minimum of 2000 working hours during a minimum of 3 years over the past 10 years. For level 1 competence units, a minimum of 1200 working hours during a minimum of 2 years over the past 10 years are sufficient. People over 25 that have the required work experience but cannot duly justify it through the required documentation, are given the opportunity to supply other type of evidence and their case will then be evaluated by a special panel.

    Evaluation of the situation in the labour market of carers in the country

    The labor market in the public sector is stagnated, because the demand of this service has also stagnanted due to its high price. On the contrary, it can be said that the labour market has increased in the private sector.

    Evaluation of the participation of the country in the European collaboration in the field of care on the old age people

    At regional level (Basque Country), a large number of institutions and organisations collaborate with other European institutions in the field of care of the older people.

    General description of the professional status of the carers in the country

    In 2009 the vocational certificates «Health and social home care for dependent people» and «Health and social care for dependent people in institutions » started up, and this meant the professional recognition for care workers.

    Description of the place of work of the carers in the country

    The main places of work of care workers in Spain are: private homes, day centres, convalescence centres and Senior’ homes.

    Requirements to the personality of the candidates for carer (moral stability, physical condition, addiction to nicotine, etc.)

    None

    Requirements to an immigrant as a candidate for carers job

    None

    Work regulations of carers in the country

    Based on regional labor agreement (Basque Country’s province of Bizkaia):

    ·    Working hours: 1362 hours per year (without travel time), 7 hour per day.

    ·    Rest period and rest breaks: Saturdays, Sundays and bank holidays.

    ·    Night working: it is regulated in the labor agreement but in practice it is not done.

    ·    Holidays: 30 work days per year.

    ·    Sick leave, maternity leave: like any other employee.

    ·    Unemployment benefits: like any other employee.

    Main principles of payment system of carers

    The base salary is 24.000 euros per year. It is paid by means of payslips. There are 15 pays, three of them extra salaries (based on regional labor agreement of Bizkaia).

    Other benefits of carers additional to the salary (telephone, covered transportation expenses, any discounts, etc.)

    The transportation expenses are paid (based on regional labor agreement of Bizkaia). In SSI Group all the carers have a mobile phone for work calls. However this largely depends on the company/entity care workers work for.

    The motivation for job of carer

    The motivation for job of carer is investigated. In the recruitment process we ask about the motivation to work with elderly people and about previous experience in the field.

    Average duration of work in the position of a carer?

    Approximately 30 years

     

  • Long-term care and the situation of social workers

    Country

    Spain

    The responsible body for overall management of social worker activities in the country

    Regional and provincial governments

     

    Long-term care

    Basic principles

    The coverage of this risk supplements the protection provided by the Social Security Public System as a benefit of the Social Assistance System.

    Benefits (in kind and cash benefits) are public, financed and provided by the State and the Autonomous Communities with the collaboration of local Institutions. Participation of beneficiaries where appropriate.

    Long-term care

    Field of application

    Spanish citizens who are in a situation of dependency, who are legal residents in Spain and have been residing for at least 5 years, 2 of which must immediately precede the date of submission of the application.

    Specific provisions for foreign residents.
    The situation of Spanish emigrants, who have returned, is taken into account.

    Organisation of Long-term care

    Informal caregivers and professional providers

    Professional providers: institutions and home care providers, of a public, private or semi-public nature.
    Informal caregivers: relatives and people close to the beneficiary.

     

    Long-term care

    Benefits for the carer

    Cash benefits are payable to the beneficiary, who pays the informal caregiver. Compulsory inclusion of the informal caregiver in the Social Security System.

    Long-term care

    User charges

    Participation according to the type and cost of the service and to the individual economic situation of the beneficiary.

     

  • Social protection system of the older people in general

    Country

    Spain

    GDP at market prices Purchasing Power Standard per inhabitant, 2011

    24 700

    Pension expenditure,  % of GDP, 2010

    8.9%

    Expenditure on care for elderly, % of GDP, 2008

    0.45%

    At-risk-of-poverty rate, age group 65 years or over, 2011

    20.8%

    Old-age pensions

    Basic principles

    Compulsory social insurance scheme financed by contributions covering employees and assimilated groups providing earnings-related Retirement pensions (pensión de jubilación) depending on contributions and the duration of affiliation.

    Special scheme for the self-employed.

    Old-age pensions

    Legal retirement age in standard case

    65 years

     

    Financing principles for old-age pensions

    Contributions (employees and employers)

    Benefits for older unemployed

    N/A

    Financing systems for long-term benefits

    Case of  old-age benefits

    Current income financing (’pay as you go’) and creation of a single stabilisation fund for the whole social security system.

    Health care

    Basic principles

    Tax-financed public health service (asistencia sanitaria)

    Health care

    Benefits for prosthesis, spectacles, hearing-aids

    Provision and normal replacement of prosthesis, orthopaedic apparatus and wheel-chairs.

    Certain helps with purchase of spectacles, hearing aids and other special types of prosthesis.

     

  • Computer and Internet skills of the general population

    Country

     

    Spain

    Use of computers

     

     

    Enforced lack of a computer

    2011

     

    One adult 65 years or over. Cannot afford

     

    1.5%

    E-skills

    2012

     

    Individuals who have copied or moved a file or folder

     

    64.0%

    Individuals who have used copy or cut and paste tools to duplicate or move information on screen

     

    64.0%

    Individuals who have compressed files

     

    46.0%

    Way of obtaining e-skills

    2011

     

    Individuals who have obtained IT skills through self-study (learning by doing)

     

    65.0%

    Reasons for not having taken a computer course

    2011

     

    Individuals who do not need to take a computer course because their computer skills are sufficient

     

    21.0%

    Individuals who do not need to take a computer course because they rarely use computers

     

    11.0%

    Use of Internet

     

     

    Frequency of Internet access:

    2012

     

    Once a week (including every day)

     

    65.0%

    Daily

     

    51.0%

    Internet used for

    2012

     

    Internet banking

     

    32.0%

    Interaction with public authorities (last 12 months)

     

    45.0%

    Mobile Internet access with portable computer

     

     

    Every day or almost every day 2012

     

    8.0%

    Individuals' level of Internet skills

    2011

     

    Individuals who have used a search engine to find information

     

    69.0%

    Individuals who have sent an email with attached files

     

    58.0%

    Individuals who have posted messages to chat rooms, newsgroups or an online discussion forum

     

    32.0%

    Individuals who have used the Internet to make phone calls

     

    20.0%

    Individuals using the Internet for seeking health-related information

     

    38.0%

    Concern about possible problems related to Internet usage

    2010

     

    Strongly concerned about catching a virus or other computer infection (e.g. worm or Trojan horse) resulting in loss of information or time

     

    22.0%

    Mildly concerned about catching a virus or other computer infection (e.g. worm or Trojan horse) resulting in loss of information or time

     

    26.0%

    Not at all concerned about catching a virus or other computer infection (e.g. worm or Trojan horse) resulting in loss of information or time

     

    18.0%

    Security related problems experienced through using the Internet for private purposes in the last 12 months.

    2010

     

    Caught a virus or other computer infection (e.g. worm or Trojan horse) resulting in loss of information or time

     

    22.0%

    Financial loss as a result of receiving fraudulent messages ('phishing') or getting redirected to fake websites asking for personal information ('pharming')

     

    2.0%

    Activities via Internet not done because of security concerns

    2010

     

    Security concerns kept individual from ordering or buying goods or services for private use

     

    27.0%

    Security concerns kept individual from communicating with public services and administrations

     

    8.0%

    Use and update of IT security software or tool to protect the private computer and data

    2010

     

    Use any kind of IT security software or tool (anti-virus, anti-spam,firewall, etc.) in order to protect private computer and data

     

    56.0%

    Don't use any kind of IT security software or tool (anti-virus, anti-spam, firewall, etc.) in order to protect private computer and data

     

    6.0%

    Don't know if use any kind of IT security software or tool (anti-virus, anti-spam, firewall, etc.) in order to protect private computer and data

     

    2.0%

    Frequency of safety copies or back up files from the computer on any external storage device

    2010

     

    Frequency of safety copies/back up files: always or almost always

     

    15.0%

    Frequency of safety copies/back up files: Never or hardly ever

     

    31.0%

    Evaluation of the computer and internet skills of the carers in the country

    On the whole it could be said that the carers do not have computer and internet skills, unless they receive specific training.